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Nine Inch Nails Vs Johnny Cash – which version of Hurt is better?


❶Congress started to reconsider its commitment to Filipino veterans. Cocteau's description of it might also offer a clue to Fassbinder's epilogue:


Berlin Alexanderplatz
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A Light unto Nations: to Show the Way to Unity to the Whole World

I just want to thank you for everything you do. When I am in a bad area, I feel so much better when I see a police officer. My neighbors husband passed away and the police officer sat with her for hours to make sure she was ok.. I live on a street where 2 police officers live, and I feel safe at home. Please know that so many people, respect you and thank you for all you do. God Bless you Lt Daniel Furseth.

Some civilians like myself still care and support you, and will continue to!! Gee boys a real tough subject to answer in a nut shell. All too many people do not realize the position of an enforcement officer at any level. Many think there are too many police?

Too many thugs an the streets of America of all types. More often the criminals are easily noticed and identified. These people force Police to profile them and why? They way they dress, long hair, UN-shaven, tattoos, skin piercing, hooded clothing, pants down to their knees. These thugs make themselves targets and for the most part it seems to be deliberate. The public at large should drive with a Sheriff or any law enforcement unit to see first hands how scary and difficult their jobs really are.

Why is it some many kids are respectful and polite wearing normal clothes with a clean appearance………. Gosh, so many live by the rules and never have to place themselves in harms way. Too many excuses from this element of scanty knowledge pointing the finger in the wrong direction. At some point if you people that actually think you are privileged characters and above the law for very immature and ill guided with no hope and this is why we need Police to contain people that cannot judge right from wrong!

I totally feel this mans pain.. I felt the same way when I had my civil liberties violated by what are supposed to be officers of the LAW. You see I grew up around cops, they were my friends parents then when I grew friends.

Now here is the thing, I understand people make mistakes, it happens. The biggest threat to good cops are abusive cops because to be honest you all look the same to us.. It is a pretty big mess. And it is pretty thankless. Some of us still smile and say thank you when we get a ticket or warning we know we deserved. I am a Pastor. I know what it is like to stand between the sheep and the wolf.

Sometimes the sheep understand the danger and am glad I am there. Sometimes I get hoof marks up my back because the sheep want to play with the cute puppy. Both are more of a calling. Something higher than ourselves. Something that serves a much higher purpose. Law enforcement officers are appreciated. Romans 13 even calls you ministers of God. Thank you for caring, and thank you for wearing the Shield.

Thank you Patrick Heeney! Thank you for keeping my community in De Forest safe! Law enforcement is often an under appreciated, thankless job. I want to say thank you for your honest words of our current culture. I will not lie, when I was a teenager, I felt the same way about cops, despising them.

Now, 24 with a wife and two daughters, I thank God for the men and women like you who serve us, protect us, and keep me with a peace of mind of protection. I speak for my generation, but only a small percentile, as I say thank you for your sacrifice and your unhindered service for justice. I understand, but also the role the media does play—- reporting news, usually bad. It seems like Albuquerque police are totally out of control! But only the bad things see the light of day. Daniel, I am moved by your words.

The problems you cite are real and cannot continue. Something must be done to put things back in balance. I see two areas that could be addressed first that might help. Identify the number of crimes…police interactions….. M ake the system transparent. This means cameras for the cops to record all interactions with the public. This would also include unsolved attacks on both police and the public.

As it is now American sentiment is formed and directed by a media that is profit driven but terribly short on perspective or long term analysis. Self styled wise men can get their distorted views on the internet but other facts and issues are not presented. We have to assume people are good and seek justice in a safe place to live. Second, I would purge a few systems. Examine the prison industry and release non violent offenders. This also means purging the ranks of cops.

That one dangerous officer with a psychotic point of view must be found and removed. They cause more problems than they solve and are a danger to themselves, the public and other officers. We need to eliminate laws that only serve to generate revenue.

Allowing the government to seize property without due process is just wrong……. The pot laws need to be re examined. The cop job has been expanded in too many directions and it discourages serious men like yourself. I can appreciate the sentiments in this.

My point is that, while the author bemoans the ungrateful public for besmirching the good profession, it may be that there are good and valid reasons for this. And the abusive cops who have raped, beaten, falsely accused, and even murdered innocent members of the public, are just as much to blame. Perhaps what could help is some self policing. When your fellow officers are doing something beyond the pale, stop covering it up or excusing it. For all of you doing a good job, I applaud you.

Every time I meet a cop, I want to believe he is the good guy and not the thug version. And where I can shoot a thug attacking me, I have no recourse or defense against a violent cop. I am literally more scared about rogue cops than criminals, because I can properly dispatch a criminal if needed.

I would like to amend this to add one thing. Despite anxieties I have about it, I always try to assume any cop I see is the good guy.

If I rolled up onto a scene of some thug on top of one of you, beating you, I can promise you I would not just pass by or stand there watching. Please take my initial words with a few grains of salt. For those of you that are showing honor in your daily job performance, you deserve the appreciation of all of us. I have had the same experience Daniel……. Show me respect and kindness you will get the same back from me. I think since you know how to fix this, you should be wearing a police uniform.

Emergency Health Care Worker, your comment is disgusting and smacks of a police brutality apologist. Daniel clearly articulated what those on the other side of the thin blue line feel every day. How about you clean up your own house and provide something other than an ad hominem attack next time sparky. Concerned citizen — I think that you have lost your mind. Read the legal publications, not the agenda-driven media ones, and you would see that.

The officers who beat and falsely charged John McKenna back in received slaps on the wrist, despite having engaged in pejury and destruction of evidence to support their unwarranted assault on him.

Only one officer was criminally charged and a judge married to a cop vacated that conviction. Four were suspended, but all kept their law enforcement certifications- enabling them to be hired by another department.

Michigan the Supreme Court increased the ability of police to kick in the door of any house where they serve a warrant. King, the Supreme Court basically said the police could create the exigent circumstances they need to avoid needing a warrant. We are rapidly becoming a police state- many parts of the country we already are.

A man tells his story about getting brutally beaten by a group of police, gang-style, without being charged with a crime, and you call him entitled because it speaks ill of your buddies. Your response, instead of being compassionate, is just snarky and rude. I was greatly moved by the original article, and I have no doubt much of it bears truth and poignancy … but there is most definitely another side.

As individuals, we tend to form our opinions based on our observations and experience. These days, young cops strut around like they own the place. I was in the legal profession for many years before I retired, and I have seen a lot to form a balanced view of police and policing behaviour. We definitely see in our society today a negation of respect for other people, including people in authority, but the police also exercise this diminishing of respect for people.

First, I want to say that I am sorry you had that poor experience. However, you need to go back and review what you said. You do realize this makes no sense? As long as we continue to judge each other through the bad actions of a few, there can be no hope for peace and civility for all people. You see it is all well and good to look at places like Ferguson and make snap judgements and such but when the logic is applied back to you or yours suddenly that logical line if thinking gets chucked out the window.

The double standard has to stop Americans. Start believing in the good in people and they may just surprise you with their good deeds. Ferguson is a good case in point. It was the fault of the local government and the police department as an instition.

Google the case of Henry Davis, a man arrested erroneously in a warrant mix-up someone with the same name had a warrant , was then beaten badly by officers, and then charged with destruction of government property because his blood got on their uniforms. At trial, those officers then either admitted to perjury in their arrest reports or committed it during the trial. None were held accountable for their actions. In practice, that means the local police ignore serious crimes because they are too busy pursuing revenue for the city.

Being a Vietnam Era veteran, I know those feelings all too intimately. If you can look yourself in the mirror and be proud of who you see, then, all else is fluff and nonsense. You work in DeForest, WI—an awesome place.

I know because I grew up near there. People and i use that word losely like you that want to vilify the police and underrate the role they play in society. He has to put on his uniform and keep snot nose whiners like you safe. He has to arrest the thugs that you seem to glorify and if for some odd reason he comes up on a scene of one of your Micheal brown heroes pointing a gun at your head, he will swallow hard and do whatever he can to stop your death.

So what if he serves in a small town, the job of a police officer is the same nation wide. Get off your high horse and support the men and who protect you daily so you can sleep in relative safety at night. No matter what the profession. Some jobs are thankless and we often wonder why people choose those careers especially when there are days when it is extremely hard to care.

Police and teachers experience this each and every day, and the common denominator — where the blame lies — falls on the parents and their lack of parenting. Yes, your job and many others are thankless and those of us who do care often wonder why you do what you do…. This was very well written and I empathize with you.

Hearing the tales told by some of my students about how the police wronged them is frustrating beyond belief, yet there they are in a criminal justice program hoping to get a job in the very profession they vilify.

Leaving policing to teach was bitter sweet for me. I love my job, but leaving the most noble profession lowered my stature in society. Playing the victim and blaming everyone else is only going to make things worse. I think the vast majority of police officers do a great job. Now, get to work on improving your community relations and weeding out the officers who are causing the public image problem to begin with.

I agree, more than a few bad apples. My opinion of LE went to pot when I was 8 years old. I was riding my bike down my street. A lawman turned on his siren and pulled in front of me sideways as if I were going to drive off.

I had no idea what was happening. He said my bike was stolen. He then pulled out a piece of paper with a serial number. Yeah, tough lawman on an 8 year old. I am 50 years old. Have one ticket to my name but through my job had plenty of interaction with law enforcement. Reap what you sow. Never lose your passion for the job. Its a thankless job. I have over 15 years on the job. A twice deported felon decided to shoot two of my partners and then at me.

The only thing that keeps me going is God and family. I regret ever serving this thankless society we live in today. Most are clueless and truly unaware of what goes bump in the night. Guess what, I started none of them. This will show the troops you are still one of them. It might be wise to listen to yourself.

Id suggest it would be more productive for police to ask what are they doing to cause the public to lose confidence in LE and how can police correct themselves to change that loss of confidence, rather than blaming everyone else for your own failings.

Stryker, To summarize how you voiced your opinion, I would suggest your place you heart and soul into the profession.

I understand exactly what Lt has said. Its truly a self satisfaction of doing the right thing. But I also know how difficult it might feel for todays society and mentality, to hate the ones who protect.

I agree not all law enforcement hold this honor. Like todays society, everyone is out to bash law enforcement. But forget to publicize many of the one who truly fight crime to protect. And I blame the news mostly on this, because they are into ratings of wrongdoings, not for those who save lives. By blaming the news, you are as bad as the kids and parents referred to in the letter above.

I agree with a lot of the points raised — especially about the cops causing the profession to be hated are the minority of cops…. But maybe you could take responsibility for your profession the way you expect youth to take responsibility for their community, and parents to take responsibility for their kids. What is written is very hypocritical.

Volunteer for law enforcement somewhere. Do a few ride alongs with an LEO. It completely changed my perspective. The problem is that police are not paragons, but corruptible men. When men in positions of authority fall they need to be punished more severely, not given paid vacation and a slap on the wrist.

Citizens, American citizens, with rights and freedoms, are trampled and characterized as thugs by enforcers who no longer see the humanity in their foes. I lose faith in humanity when grown men back each other up after murdering a grandmother in a house they never should have raided. The american people were never the enemy. Corruption is the enemy of any true patriot. Every day is different…. Most cops live a two front war…. I understand you, I retired injured on the line of duty. When I was a child my father told me if he was not around to find a policeman for he will help you and protect you.

The only reward you take with you is the good you have done. Everybody wants to second guess what we do.

Something has gone wrong and I think it begins with the home , today most homes have single parents who have no time for their children ,we also have no time for God ,along the way we lost respect for each other the Flag and Country. Dont loose your courage we are the thin blue line that keeps our society in check. No one told us of appreciation and respect is always earned by our actions. Mark, You have cited the hardest part of interaction with the public.

Every encounter is different. Every day is different. Even when we meet the same people…they change. What makes it hard for police is they do not get called to interact with citizens unless there is trouble.. Likewise, the people who call and are called about have a variety of expectations regarding police.

You gotta start over fresh every time; not easy! To me, you represent one of the few good thing about government. I have 3 sons in law and a granddaughter who are your brothers and sister, 3 of whom have been injured in the line of duty. I support you blue and brown. Stop treating us like it.

As a trained and experienced public defense investigator I read this essay with a touch of sympathy and a bucket of salt. Everything emanating from the mouth of police is self serving.

They have training for that. When you give that much power to people it will attract the worst kind of people; and it has. More people in this country have been killed by police than any terrorist attacks on American soil. Having the power to wrongly imprison people, shoot them, beat them, insult them and sexually harass them with impunity is a big draw for many a coward, criminal, murderer or creep.

Couple that with the fact that in most states you would spend more time in the hair academy getting your beauticians license than in the police academy getting your license to perform the aforementioned heinous acts and you can see we have a problem.

Police will take your money, beat you, sexually harass you. I have interviewed hundreds of police officers in criminal cases and the level of contempt and disdain they show for us is sickening.

Just one example, in every case where police showed up for domestic violence, or rape, at least one of the officers made a sexual overture, advance, or asked the victim for a date. However, there is some light at the end of the tunnel. This is where the principal off butthurt comes in. I define butthurt as the feeling one gets when bad things you have been doing to others happen to you. When cops experience butthurt, they yell louder than anyone. If cops shoot, beat and maim enough of each other and their family members, sooner or later something will get done about it.

Johnson Thank you for so eloquently stating something that I feel as well, but am unable to express in verbiage and or written words. I applaud your expression! It describes what most Cops I know feel, but I have never read it so eloquently put…. Police have brought it on themselves. Is jail going to be rough on a former cop? Yeah, but as police have been fond of saying: All that is a load of crap. Right now people are scared and frustrated by the fact that it seems like every time a cop get caught doing something wrong the worst thing that happens is that he gets some paid vacation and sometimes a stern talking too.

You act as if you are in such a dangerous profession, and yet it not even in the top ten. You signed up for this. Stop bitching and do your job. To the contrary, Mr. That is clearly not the case. The power imbalance is just too great.

Until such time that those within your ranks who commit such offenses are dealt with swiftly and severely you will continue to be reviled and feared by the public at large.

Have you ever got a basket of apples and there always seems to be one or two bad ones in the bunch? So it goes with the police, military, lawyers, doctors, priest etc. To realize that not all are bad is hard sometimes but experience has taught me that NO they are not all rotten to the core. I had a incident with a member of the clergy years ago and even as a child I realized that while he was a bad person priest the other Priest who was there was a wonderful human being.

So I still took my children to church to learn about religion and to acknowledge that there is good in the world people with wisdom and strength to help us. So it goes for Police. Which I have in the past and believe me they did what they had to and did a good job doing it.

Seems to me like you need to find another job. There are more people in your corner that what you are led to believe. Police presence is essential. Keep up the good work! And ppl…if you see an officer say hello and thank you. They have a family at home they are providing for while providing you with peace and safety. Your frustration is palpable. You are in a difficult position. I wish there was a way for you to get this off your chest without also doing to others what you object having done to you.

There are some of us that do appreciate everything you do even when I got stopped for not stopping completely at a stop sign. I went to thank the police officers that were giving out traffic violations in our school zone. When I heard some of these examples I was sad I wanted to do something! I follow the rules, I pay more attention so that I am not a part of the problem. I think many of you are missing the point of this article. Read the last line………it shows the resilience of a police officer.

The last line shows that this officer is ready to deal with it again. But the trollers here are obvious cop haters. And cop haters are always people who have broken the law and got caught and are bitter about it. Or perhaps family members of the aforementioned…. My hat to all the cops in Canada and USA.

When I am stranded on the highway or feel threatened I am sure glad I can count on officers of the law.. When one of you dies doing your job I am sad and angry. I take this opportunity to thank you all for looking after us all. Thank you Daniel for a well written article that echos the many unspoken sentiments of other fellow police members.

Hobbies, family, friends, exercise, etc. Recently finished it, highly recommended. You are an incredibly brave, intelligent and resilient man Daniel. As a wife of a RCMP officer in British Columbia, a mother and a teacher, I applaud you and all the efforts you have made to enlighten the general public regarding the erroneous views of others regarding the police as thugs, bullies, etc.

I also grew up respecting the police and others, learned the importance of working hard, being held accountable for my actions and loving myself and the world. Unfortunately many others do not have the good fortune to grow up in a loving home and do not hold these values.

Their hate for the police alongside their disrespect for others, for society stems from this upbringing. So, in short, it is the ignorant that have such disdain for authority. Trust me, teachers get it too!! We support you, we understand you and appreciate all that you do. The police often do take it on the chin. And that does make for a hard job. Maybe some positive coverage would help? This family are friends of mine:. I cannot express my appreciation more for the men and women who take on such a role in our communities, but to say Thank You.

Your service has made me feel safer, has helped in a time of strife and I am honored to have the protection you have offered to me, my family, and my community. I am humbled by your sacrifice. I will always appreciate your dedication and commitment. I completely agree at times.

We have a truly bad sheriff here named Frank Rivero but he gets a pass while regular cops are pilloried. I just want to say a big THANK YOU and to your brother who, every day leave your home…not knowing if today, is the day something goes terribly, terribly wrong.

You may have to use force; shot someone; get hurt in the line of duty; find a child discarded like trash; or you, yourself my be injured or worse. Members of my family at least five generations back have served on police departments all through Illinois and Indiana; were involved in the Haymarket Riot.

Doctor Lawrence Blumm is a good choice. Prior to retiring After 32 years in law enforcement, I was a Sergeant on the Southern Division Shooting Team, surely as a lieutenant, you must have had training when officers need to discharge their firearms.

I have been retired 10 years now. Six years ago I was ordained and other than providing Hospice care I have extensive knowledge in Conflict Resolution. It sounds like you are experiencing PTSD, or something else has gotten under your skin. You sir, have not been properly debriefed. I hope your subordinates are able to avoid your rant.

The best place to contact me is on unchainthetree. I have some evidence which substantiates that cannabis can help PTSD. I hope I have not offended. It was not my intention. See more on unchainthetree. Sorry sir I have a hard time believing you were in Law Enforcement for 32 years after your comment or that you were an instructor for others in the field.

I know it is rough out there in some places today but…If a cop stopped me when I was 18 and reckless and speeding, they were an inconvenient guardian angel. I never thought that anyone in uniform could ever be anything but kind. To me the uniform means safety. That militarized gear means you have a little better chance of going home after your shift- a blessing my dad never had and thankfully never needed- none the less the worry was always in the back of my mind. The only thing that really effected us negatively was the fact that many years at the job can make good people jaded about the human race.

Mostly because you all see the worst of it- all the time. My dad had to retire and then live through Katrina to see the good and selfless people that do exist in the volunteers and charity workers that managed the crisis while the local and federal government floundered. Find some time to spend with good people-. They can lift your spirit. Suck it up guys. You could be a nurse or teacher. I appreciate and respect the police more than you know. However, as a mental health professional, I see all to often police encouraging parents to hit their kids or do whatever it takes to get them in line.

Police should not play parenting coach but should be armed with appropriate resources to give to parents. Sometimes all it takes is one bad experience with a police officer to start the negativity and perception is everything. There is good and bad in every profession and certain professions, including mine, should always be mindful as to the message we are portraying to the public. We have several members of our family that serve and have served in the armed forces and the first responder professions.

I love and appreciate them and the sacrifices they make. Please continue to put on that uniform and care again tomorrow. There is a quiet majority that takes solace in knowing you are there.

I work in the medical field. I stopped caring too.. I am tired of all the people coming into the ER and asking for drugs… more pain killers than any human should ever have. Then they want a sandwich, the remote to the TV, an extra blanket, an extra pillow, the lights down… They want to know what takes so long to get their beloved narcotic.

They will turn me in to the nurse supervisor, my supervisor, the hospital administrator and anyone else they can complain too. They will talk trash about me, my team, and my hospital on facebook, twitter and anything else…. Get dressed and head to work… hoping to help that one person who really needs help. The one who really needs me… who I can make a difference with. Anyone in a long term profession that cares about their job can fall into the trap that Lt.

Dan has expressed so dramatically. Dan, and I appreciate the hell out of what peace officers that are true to their profession and themselves suit up and go out to do every day. We will keep on caring because it is right. It is not easy. I stand on the side of law enforcement.

As a retired cop of 33 years of service, I can only advise this brother and all who see the world as he does, to get out of the station house and engage people. Go to community meeting and engage. Talk to local shopkeepers, restauranteurs and folks who have a positive effect on the community.

Even the Palestinians are Semites. The only people who will get excited after reading such material are the people who will do anything to hide or justify the crimes of the Israeli apartheid. I have found the path of Daath. The physics is unified, and the original meaning, the true meaning of the Tree of Life is restored. Please, take into serious consideration that what I have offered you. I cannot think of a nobler gift that someone could be offered than the unambiguous path into true truth.

I have brought to you back that what you have lost long time ago. The ego of Jewish people is the greatest: And that is exactly the Beast which you have to face and tame. The people from this impressive list of billionaires http: This is my second posting.

The first was when I was a child and now as an adult not much has changed in my distaste for Jews. I guess did it for me. That act of terrorism was first thought to be from those airplanes but as time went by the real story has emerged and captivated my mind for the evil that Jews did to our nation on that fateful day. I am now convinced that Israel planned and executed the downing of those towers with explosives.

I have studied all the evidence and I am convinced they did it. How awful was that? All Jews share that guilt and I can see it in the way they act. I still feel awefull for all those families that lost a father, a mother or a son and daughter in that fiery hell! I still feel that shock and wonder what is next, I can never trust any Jew in public office.

I am just sick to my stomach with the thought they did it. People are always criticizing Jews for creating Communism and promoting it in the countries where they have control of the political system, finance and the media. The best thing to do is call them anti-Semitic and then use the media to destroy their reputation.

This will surely encourage more White women to interbreed with blacks. Of course the number one thing that will deliver Western nations to the cause is to promote mass immigration of non-Whites into all White societies.

Its not like there are no Jews in charge of the European nations and America. Its not like every Pres who has messed this nation up in America for 50 years is a Jew. The problem with the accusers of failed empires is this: There are nice Jews, there are evil Jews. There are loyal Jews, there are disloyal Jews.

Their are rich Jews, there are poor Jews. Like any other people. Its interesting to note that it IS Anglicans that have totally destroyed Europe: Do you see people saying: I have no sympathy for Jews at all. One of their horrific acts was That forever will burn in my heart for Jews. When I was a young boy my parents had to rent a home and we wound up in inner city Cleveland, Ohio where every home was owned by a Jew.

Now, being Catholic was found out real early after we moved into our rental apartment upstairs of a two family home. The kids knew right away I was a Catholic and every night I was chased home and they were after me! All Jews were the chasers yelling foul names at me.

At one point I asked my father why I was not a Jew. Today of course I know how evil they really are and closed off from Christians. Killing Jesus was not enough for them. Stop blaming the Jews. Though their sin was gross and grave, that is rejecting Christ, what happened to them in history were written for our learning that we might have hope.

It is not much about them now, but more about us. The Jews had forged their own fetters; they had filled for themselves the cup of vengeance. In the utter destruction that befell them as a nation, and in all the woes that followed them in their dispersion, they were but reaping the harvest which their own hands had sown.

The destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A. Terrible have been the results of rejecting the authority of Heaven. But a scene yet darker is presented in the revelations of the future.

If you are a Christian pls consider these truths. Their history is about them, but the lesson is for us. I see things on the internet that absolutely appall me. But I think the root cause of anti-Semitism is very deep.

I think it may lie in the fact that the essence of Jewishness is a relationship with the divine. That makes corrupt people jealous. I am neither Christian nor Jew; but I would stand with the Jews against all enemies. Because I respect the devoted life, and the Jews are the very definition of devoted life. They are defined by their relation to their god.

And anyone who seeks Truth, whatever their religious beliefs, will honor that. There is no doubt in my mind that the jews are more than just survivors.

There is in deed a force so powerful behind them that it denotes the ruling of the world and anyone opposing it suffers the evil it wields. I suspect but may be wrong it may be controlled opposition that there are some very beautiful REAL Jews who know that there re-legion was hijacked by the beast a long time ago if not from the near beginning. A parasite, some say to the True Creator.

The terrarium under the dome, tempting Source to unveil. One day it will come to light of truth. The zionists -serving no capital who rule the world are likely NOT Jews.

They may have stole a re-legion and re-wrote his-story. They own it all and anyone with the balls to research it know who the evil devil is. Follow the money and you will see. Seek with purity and it will be shown to you.

The truth is muddled to almost all. There are layers and layers of deception of this realm. Only ten percent will see the first layer and ten percent of those will see the second layer and ten percent of those will see the third layer….

Some have spent their lives finding out the truth. Nothing is as we are told. This blog, just as facebook, pinterest and the entire whole hole of the internet is a web they weave to capture people who know.

This entire realm is illusion. This is not about money. That is the easy part. They have it all. They want your Spirit. One of the biggest question is what must jews must do to avoid persecution expulsion etc The answer is not assimilation they have set a business trend among business community, among bankers etc. A trend of greed selfishness and unfair Ness.

Which is the root cause of there hatred. Not only that you Jews did not do what was expected from you, but you have satanically deviated that. You know, the knowledge about how this world works was given to a very good man Enoch. Not by God, but by some extraterrestrial civilization.

And he chose to go with them, but before that, he was given 30 days to transfer that knowledge to the members of his tribe, members which he considered to be the best.

There are a few possible scenarios which happened after that. I will try to be short. They tried to spread that so some other tribes, but they considered that as blasphemy — it was against their beliefs, and they killed them. Still, they kept the fragments of that knowledge, because the tools with which it was presented were true wonders for them.

And they started to adapt that to their own beliefs, their priests dedicated that to their gods, and kept that as a secret. You know, 30 days given to Enoch to transfer the knowledge is quite enough to teach someone about the essence of Kabbalah. I would like to cooperate with the scientists in order to remake such tools. So that children can learn that, as soon as they start to go to school.

Here is the essence of that knowledge: Electric permittivity and magnetic permeability are EM-qualities of space which have a minimum, so they are the — so to say — lower constraints. And, in the presence of matter, they have higher values than their minimal possible value.

And, gravitational constant is, actually, redundant quantity: The fundamental knowledge the fundamental truths of existence: And, there are moral and ethics essentials: And, all what is left to do, is to spread that knowledge to the young generations, to the future generations.

To teach them to be reasonable people people whose intelligence is driven by love goodness , and whose love goodness is led by their intelligence.

After that, I started to think and dig investigate what, how and why actually happened, trying to rationally reconstruct the perfidious scheme whose victim I was.

And I managed to do that. And ever since, the new evidence emerges, which only and exclusively do confirm the scheme. Including this article of prof. I definitely cannot say that I did not expect to read there that what I have already managed to reconstruct myself, but, nevertheless, I was astonished. Primarily with the fact that it is rather old text. Namely, someone would say that it is written a few years ago.

I hope that you will also carefully read all of the following: Just as when the snake swallows a monkey, who is alive, and perfectly aware that it is being swallowed, unable to do anything about it see, starting from 4min 10sec, this 4minsec-long video: You could also read my article at http: You know, I am worried about the world, but we, Serbs, the Serbian nation, have even more reasons than others to be worried. Noam Chomsky, …, Bernie Sanders, …, and less prominent, but, yet, the highly educated ones, like, i.

Me and you, Obrad, know — that is how we were taught in school — that we, Serbs, came somewhere from Caucasus Mountains to Balkans, sometime in 5th or 6th century. Westinghouse pretended to be a friend to Tesla. Jews do not allow themselves to have true friends among gentiles.

Some extreme perfidy they have in mind about us, about our destiny. We have never behaved in non-human ways, throughout our history. But, today, we are known as savage beasts — due to perfidious lies about us, which slowly fall apart.

We are being dismantled as a nation. We are being swallowed alive by the Snake. Most probably, we will be swallowed. But I have managed to do something that will choke the Snake: Enabling that all people become such, one day. Achieved by playing perfectly fair, despite all others played dirty? What a load of crap. The reasons why Jews are hated are usury and their hatred for non-Jews, especially Christians, plain and simple. Through usury, fractional reserve banking, and tricks like the Federal Reserve, Jewish leaders have acquired immense wealth — wealth they use to buy up media, influence other channels of culture, such as academia, and buy off politicians to do their bidding e.

Why did Cromwell slaughter Catholics even as he was welcoming Jews back into England? The Spanish Inquisition had no thing to do with Jews qua Jews, by the way.

It had zero authority over Jewish people; it had authority over Catholics alone. It lasted around years and had a death penalty rate carried out by secular authorities, not the Catholic Church that was about the same as that of modern day Texas. The peoples hate the jews because G d had given them the first blessing, the land and the all the laws of the 5 books.

The jews are the chosen that G d had chosen them for they recognized him before anybody. Please do more research: Also, Jesus spoke using symbolism such as the husbandman and the vineyard and He clearly stated, in the New Testament, the heritage of the children of Abraham shall be passed to the Gentiles. The Bible or Scriptures have been tainted for centuries by Babylonian Hebrew, so a lot of words are not in sync with the inspiration of the Holy Spirit or Set Apart Spirit of Paleo-Hebrew which linguistic roots is related more to Greek than Aramaic.

It intrest me at first but well it didnt get in my nerve really… but nice article tho at first. I am the way the truth and the life. A very lengthy piece of bull shit propaganda. The Jews are far from innocent, and are perhaps the most evil, conniving rodents on this planet. No matter what you say about Jews. I am ex-muslim and today I found Jews much more honest than muslims. Recently much exposure has been given in the media about anti Semitism in the Labour Party.

These accusations seem to have been fomented after a remark from Ken Livingston. Livingston claimed that the Nazi party made a treaty with the Zionist party. For this comment Livingston was instantly demonised as anti Semite! Yet Livingston was simply stating a fact. The haavara agreement was signed in to facilitate movement of Jews from Germany to Palestine. I only researched this historically interesting item after becoming puzzled by the rather anxious attempts by the media to prove that religious intolerance is an integral part of socialist philosophy.

Has he been censored for simply speaking the truth? If you hate the Jews then pitty on you. The Jewish people are my brothers and sisters and soon to be Kohenim to the entire world as Hashem had intended.

Two kinds of peole oin earth,those who love the jews and those who will love them,Shalom from Tasmania. I do not hate all Jews but the Jews that govern society appear to lack humanity. To be a Palestinian appears to be worse than being a Jew. The term anti-semitic is often abused and misused as a shield to evade criticism by putting the blame back on the non- Jew.

When you cry wolf by calling out anti-semetism everytime a goyim reacts, you lose more credibility. During my childhood we were thought about the holocaust and we were shown movies like Schindlers List. So I grew up sympathising with Jews and I was fooled into believing Jews were the victims and unfairly targeted…But then I began to encounter and interact with actual Jews and my ongoing interaction with so many manipulative Jews completely changed my perception.

Along with other manipulative, propagandists, opportunistic, sly behaviour. The way they brainwash people through biased media and place the spotlight on those that comprimise their agenda while they try to blend in to the crowd of whichever country they reside in.

How do you not hate such disgusting levels of hypocrisy and double standards? I could have never imagined double standars to exist at such a disturbing and dysfunctional level. Thank you for evidences and facts. They lie, steal and cheat and expect to be called respectable. He had long been in business, he thus knew single from double spacing. It would come to pages! He argued incessantly that it was in fact double spaced when in fact it was single-to-double. I am not stupid, I am not your slave!

I had Jews for landlords in They alone had duplicate keys to my apartment a requirement of local law. I came home one day, unlocked my door and found all my personal books gone — mostly rare books that took years to collect — cleaned out of two closets, along with a few personal files. The Jews are thus protected, and I therefore have no rights. In , Jews bought the apartment block I had lived in peacefully for five years. They also owned night clubs and hotels in the downtown area, this was their first residential acquisition.

They began to terrorize the existing residents, thug-style, tearing up valid leases and forcing elderly people to sign new ones under threats. My terrified Scottish neighbors had left their door open a crack waiting for me to come home. They saw it all happen, the Jews broke in, stole clothing, household items and furniture, which they hid in storage lockers in the basement.

This was the technique of Messrs Mader and DeBeer to terrorize me out so they could raise the rent. I called the police. The police found my property and forced the Jews to put it back. The police filed charges.

The star witness, the janitor whom the Jews used to steal my property, did not show up! The police officer in charge asked the court for a postponement, so he could bring the star witness next time. Next time, again, the star witness did not show up. The police did not even bother to subpoena him.

My Scottish neighbors showed up and wanted to testify. The policeman in charge said NO! When they said they would leave, the police threatened to arrest them! The police made them wait… and then the Judge said, no star witness, case closed! The Jews were in control of the legal system through the non-Jewish police — otherwise how else could this have happened? The Jews robbed me and got away with it. No justice for non-Jews on our own soil? No, not at all while Jews and their money RULE and subvert our authorities, our rights and our institutions!

I know all this, and so much more unfortunately, from 50 years of direct experience because they are unfortunately a major population where I live, and have driven out the non-Jews and are taking over our institutions and moving into our old neighborhoods.

Police were called, no charges were laid because the Jews said, well, we can let you people join our library for free… a minute bus trip away, whereas our kids used to be able to walk to our library after school. The worst is revealed by two American women who researched this for over a decade. They used their friend the Pope to redesign the Catholic faith, literally inverting it, so this in effect ended the Catholic faith as it had been known for years — but few understood, because the name of the faith and the location of its HQ and its leader all remained the same.

Flatly, the Jews need an island of their own where they can be isolated, Israel should be relocated to it, and all the rest of them, and peace will descend on earth. Indeed the article is about a method that can help all of us in a time when desperate helplessness and barbaric chaos rules.

HI , I believe there is a purpose for every thing in life , the Jews are brave and humble believers at the same time ,if there is no Jew there is no Christianity ,salvation is from the Jews ,we should prey for them and love them ,time will come they will understand who is or who was Jesus ,,,may GOD bless every believer in Christ and peace to Jerusalem and salvation to every one who wants to repent and believe in lord Jesus Christ ,amen.

I was just watching a documentary about how the Jews took over Palestine. They did massive massacres, invaded villages, and made Palestinians dig their own graves, then shot them. They killed teenagers no more than fifteen years old to scare the Palestinians and drive them away from their homes.

They beat up year-old revolutionists to death. They dressed up as Arabs and killed hundreds of Palestinians on the streets. People do not hate Jews because of their beliefs and their religion. Quite the opposite, actually, I respect their religion. We hate them because of their actions. Because of the lies they forged and told the world about Palestinians back in the s. Because of the promises they broke and the boundaries they trespassed.

Because they are racist in every single definition of the word, and treated Palestinians with less dignity than animals. Because they stole a land that was never theirs. They convict them for simply owning a weapon. In the s, Jews were allowed to roam Palestine with weapons and guns as they like, but the Palestinians were checked every day for a mere pistol.

And what did the world do? The British stood by and watched. The Americans were in on it all along. Napoleon promised them the land more than two hundred years ago. The British provided the means and the weapons.

The Americans supported their every move. The world at least owes us a bit of hate for our enemies. A virus is not alive per se. It must gain entrance to its host in some way. The cells so invaded are inadvertently destroyed. When full of virus, hijacked cells explode and disgorge a payload of virus copies to further and expand the cycle of destruction.

It is true only in a relative sense. We are not iconoclasts deliberately: We are a homeless mass seeking satisfaction for our constructive instincts. And in your institutions we cannot find satisfaction; they are the play institutions of the splendid children of man — and not of man himself. We try to adapt your institutions to our needs, because while we live we must have expression; and trying to rebuild them for our needs, we unbuild them for yours. It is conceivable that not all ideas espoused in this article are easy to swallow, and perhaps a healthy degree of skepticism is warranted.

Likewise, non-Jews do not like to hear that a certain people have been chosen above them and chosen by who? And whether all of the above ideas expressed are indeed true turns out to be a moot point when considering the common crux of the points expressed: Of course, an argument does presents itself: And who among these religions can claim success in keeping this rule among its members, or in successfully sharing it with others outside of their religion?

Jews are hated because of what they do and what they represent. The facts speak against them. But once someone is determined to be one, once initiated into the tribe, we find a cluster of ppl who, as a rule, isolate themselves and place jew first and foremost above everyone else.

The jew is no slacker. Yet, so are countless millions of others. The difference is in the supporting mythology. The jew sees themselves as separate from all the people of the world. The balance of the human race, so they are taught by their unholy book, the talmud, are essentially animals.

You cannot defraud a fellow tribe member, so the talmud says, but you can a non-tribesman. Some dismiss talmud based anti-jew arguments, but Netanyahoo stated himself he wants the talmud to be the basis for all law in israhell. The jews have assiduously distanced themselves from the nations of the world. They lived in them, exploiting them, but they were never a part of them.

Always jew first and foremost. The zionist agenda is always in front of everything else. A jew is not an American. A jew is not an Englishman. A jew is not a German. A jew is a jew, and a jew always thinks in terms of what is good for the jew. But when America for example, the glove the jewish hand controls because America is, for the time being, where the resources are to exploit no longer serves the interest of the jew, the jew will migrate elsewhere and exploit it.

Jews were the financiers for both sides of just about every war you have heard of. And they have been playing that game, which is no myth, for at least years, where there is a recorded court case, with Cicero of all people, defending his client against the avarice of the jews. And what a mess that has led to for the American people.

The fed creates the money, and to collect the interest they charge in the currency debt they needed to have the 16th amendment laid on our backs, and the IRS as the collection agency for that interest. Of course, nobody takes the time to tell you the treasury of a nation can issue its own currency at no cost without a third party. But then, where is the fun in that? Of course, all of this dovetails with the deadliest and bloodiest of all centuries, the 20th.

I suspect as long as jews maintain their death grip on the foreign and domestic policy of the nations in this world, in the chronic pursuit of their treasonous zionist agendas, where the politicians that support it do so for their respective 30 pieces of silver, the 21st century may be even worse. In The Controversy of Zion, Douglass Reed arrives at the inescapable conclusion that the near ,, deaths in the great wars of the 1st half of the 20th century were the result of jews manipulating England first and the uSa second into these wars.

Lucky for the jews, whereas before there was no way to finance these adventures, with the advent of the jewish printing press fiat money , now they had all that was needed. It takes too long to detail it all here, but when the smoke cleared, the only thing really gained by anybody in the aftermath of these two wars was the establishment of the jewish state in Palestine.

That is a serious, and what we know today as a very deadly scam. Naturally, when your tribe controls the money systems, they tend to have a little influence, no? I always get a kick out of the jews who disingenuously state that the jews did not kill Jesus. So, yes, it makes sense then, that a money changer table turning over, in your face and exposing the fraud of the demonic levitical ruling class kind of guy would be immensely hated by his target.

And it seems entirely plausible this guy, Jesus, would be perceived as a threat. And the next thing you know, Jesus is dead. The modern jew is just as much a liar as the disingenuous snakes Jesus called out way back when to say these levitical judaic fraudsters did not kill Jesus.

Had it not been for their conspiracy to have Jesus executed by the Roman authority, Jesus would not have been killed. The modern jew plays the same game. I have only scratched the surface. Zooming out, the real problem is all the ancient mythologies driving foreign and domestic policy. These jews who are so obsessed with money and power undoubtedly could care less about it all, but take advantage of it to get what they want. The problem there is a Christian follows the teachings of Jesus, where the focus on character and heavenly treasures rue the day, knowing life here is short.

The sins of the jew are so comprehensive and mind boggling, naturally they have no other choice to stay on the offensive, using their position in banking, media, govt and education to demonize any who dare speak out against them.

It is only self serving. The jew has eternally divided loyalties, and considering how bloody and violent their ideologies are, they are a threat to humanity and world peace. Run off to your synagogue and have a barmitzvah. I regret my post could only, again, barely scratch the surface on this issue.

Wake up, ye citizens of the world! Know thy enemy, or thy enemy will surely destroy you! The message of unity is important.

Not that we become one [diversity makes us stronger], but that we love each other as one. A global online movement helping our Jewish daughters become Jewish mothers. Fyi,,, their is a difference between Jewish and jews. Jewish is a religious, jew is a nation of people. The bible tells us who the real jews are and they is not the peole who live over there in Israel now today. The so-called jews that is over in israel today is called kazares russians.

The bible tells us that the jews was going. Back into slavery on ships with yokes of iron on they necks to a land they never seen and they will be sold as bondman and bondwemans. The only people who fit the bible prophecy is the so-called african american. No white people or any other nation fit that prophecy. Why did yall steal my people identity? Israel is seen as an abomination on the face of the earth. One fairy tale in particular would be the fact the bank desires your house.

The financial institution wants your money, not your own home. They want the amount of money they loaned you together with interest. Keeping away from the bank will only draw the foreclosed realization. Thanks for your article. I believe that every people of every race has a right of existence , but atrocities , brute force , will not be a solution.

If it was so Hitler would have succeeded in eliminating the Jews. About religion no religious sect should claim themselves superior to any other. To me religion is a matter of individual belief , and nobody should try to impose his ideologies on others.

If Israel chooses to bomb hospitals , and kill children in the name of self defense, destroy entire townships and occupy lands , how are they any different from the Nazis. One atrocity cannot be justified by another. Every child and every sick in every hospital in this world has the right to live. If the middle east conflict surrounding Israel can be resolved , most terrorist activities around the world will end.

God of all waits on your cry to him in the name of Jesus. Your land belongs to God and not just that little piece of land your on that has the Middle East foaming like pigs that they are. Benjamin you have great wisdom and patience from God you were chosen for a time like this… Armageddon.

There will be no more war after this. If you give God all the glory for every victory you bleed for.

He has promised vengeance to those who oppose the apple of his eye; your enemies will be slaughtered by his wrath. There will be a time were be a time were even the powerful I. Please get right with the Christ today, they call him Yeshua. Just a taught but push Gaza into the Mediterranean sea and see if rats swim. That land shall not be divided ever, if so damnation comes on the world and Christ will come and take those who call on his name off this earth till all opposition is gone.

The Jewish Community is disappearing. They are inter—marrying with mates from other religions and many of these unions result in the Jewish spouse leaving his or hers inherited religion.

Complaining about being disliked by Gentiles, but refusing to tell Gentiles what the Babylonian Talmud teaches about Gentiles? Death Penalty and Talmud Law, Part 4: Bury believed that the office exercised supervision over all foreigners visiting Constantinople, and that they were under the supervision of the Logothetes tou dromou. Byzantines availed themselves of a number of diplomatic practices. For example, embassies to the capital would often stay on for years. A member of other royal houses would routinely be requested to stay on in Constantinople, not only as a potential hostage, but also as a useful pawn in case political conditions where he came from changed.

Another key practice was to overwhelm visitors by sumptuous displays. The writings of Classical antiquity were cultivated and extended in Byzantium. Therefore, Byzantine science was in every period closely connected with ancient philosophy , and metaphysics. Byzantines stood behind several technological advancements. Pendentive architecture, a specific spherical form in the upper corners to support a dome, is a Byzantine invention.

Although the first experimentation was made in the s, it was in the 6th-century in Byzantine Empire that its potential was fully achieved. A mechanical sundial device consisting of complex gears made by the Byzantines has been excavated which indicates that the Antikythera mechanism , a sort of analog mechanism used in astronomy invented around the late second century BC, continued to be re active in the Byzantine period.

Constantinople was full of inventors and craftsmen. The "philosopher" Leo of Thessalonika made for the Emperor Theophilos —42 a golden tree, the branches of which carried artificial birds which flapped their wings and sang, a model lion which moved and roared, and a bejewelled clockwork lady who walked. These mechanical toys continued the tradition represented in the treatise of Heron of Alexandria c. Such mechanical devices reached high level of sophistication and were made in order to impress the visitors.

Leo the Mathematician has also been credited with the system of beacons , a sort of optical telegraph, stretching across Anatolia from Cilicia to Constantinople, which gave advance warning of enemy raids, and which was used as diplomatic communication as well.

The Byzantines knew and used the concept of hydraulic: John Philoponus , an Alexandrian philologist, Aristotelian commentator and Christian theologian, author of a considerable number of philosophical treatises and theological works, was the first who questioned Aristotle's teaching of physics.

Before that nobody questioned Aristotle's teaching of physics despite it had flaws. On Aristotle's physics John Philoponus wrote:. But this is completely erroneous, and our view may be corroborated by actual observation more effectively than by any sort of verbal argument. For if you let fall from the same height two weights of which one is many times as heavy as the other, you will see that the ratio of the times required for the motion does not depend on the ratio of the weights, but that the difference in time is a very small one.

And so, if the difference in the weights is not considerable, that is, of one is, let us say, double the other, there will be no difference, or else an imperceptible difference, in time, though the difference in weight is by no means negligible, with one body weighing twice as much as the other.

John Philoponus' criticism of Aristotelian principles of physics was an inspiration for Galileo Galilei many centuries later, as Galileo cited Philoponus substantially in his works, and was the reason why Galileo also refuted Aristotelian physics during the Scientific Revolution.

Ship mill is an invention made by the Byzantines, and was constructed in order to mil grains by using the energy of the stream of water. The technology eventually spread to the rest of Europe and was in use until ca. In a codification of the laws and decrees found place in the Codex Theodosianus named after Theodosius II. It summarized the laws and gave directions how to interpret the laws. Under the reign of Justinian I it was Tribonian , a notable jurist in the empire, who supervised the revision of the legal code known today as Corpus Juris Civilis.

In the field of law, Justinian I 's reforms had a clear effect on the evolution of jurisprudence , with his Corpus Juris Civilis becoming the basis for revived Roman law in the Western world, while Leo III's Ecloga influenced the formation of legal institutions in the Slavic world. In the 10th century, Leo VI the Wise achieved the complete codification of the whole of Byzantine law in Greek with the Basilika , which became the foundation of all subsequent Byzantine law with an influence extending through to modern Balkan legal codes.

The concept of hospital as institution to offer medical care and possibility of a cure for the patients due to the ideals of Christian charity, rather than just merely a place to die, appeared in Byzantine Empire. Although the concept of uroscopy was known to Galen, he did not see the importance of using it to localize the disease. It was under the Byzantines with physicians such of Theophilus Protospatharius that they realized the potential in uroscopy to determine disease in a time when no microscope or stethoscope existed.

That practice eventually spread to the rest of Europe. In medicine the works of Byzantine doctors, such as the Vienna Dioscorides 6th century , and works of Paul of Aegina 7th century and Nicholas Myrepsos late 13th century , continued to be used as the authoritative texts by Europeans through the Renaissance. The first known example of separating conjoined twins happened in the Byzantine Empire in the 10th century when a pair of conjoined twins from Armenia came eventually to Constantinople.

Many years later one of them died, so the surgeons in Constantinople decided to remove the body of the dead one. The result was partly successful as the surviving twin lived in three days before dying.

But the fact that the second person survived for few days after separating it, was so impressive that it was mentioned a century and half years later again by historians. The next case of separating conjoined twins will be recorded first about years later in the year in Germany.

Greek Fire , an incendirary weapon which could even burn on water is also attributed to the Byzantines. It played a crucial role when the Byzantine Empire defeated the Umayyad Caliphate during the Siege of Constantinople — The first example of a grenade also appeared in Byzantine Empire, where rudimentary incendiary grenades made of ceramic jars holding glass or nails were made and used on battlefields.

In the final century of the Empire, astronomy and other mathematical sciences were taught in Trebizond; medicine attracted the interest of almost all scholars.

During this period, refugee Byzantine scholars were principally responsible for carrying, in person and in writing, ancient Greek grammatical, literary studies, mathematical, and astronomical knowledge to early Renaissance Italy. The Byzantine Empire was a theocracy , said to be ruled by God working through the Emperor.

Jennifer Fretland VanVoorst argues, "The Byzantine Empire became a theocracy in the sense that Christian values and ideals were the foundation of the empire's political ideals and heavily entwined with its political goals. The constitution of the Byzantine Empire was based on the conviction that it was the earthly copy of the Kingdom of Heaven. Just as God ruled in Heaven, so the Emperor, made in his image, should rule on earth and carry out his commandments It saw itself as a universal empire.

Ideally, it should embrace all the peoples of the Earth who, ideally, should all be members of the one true Christian Church, its own Orthodox Church. Just as man was made in God's image, so man's kingdom on Earth was made in the image of the Kingdom of Heaven. The survival of the Empire in the East assured an active role of the Emperor in the affairs of the Church. The Byzantine state inherited from pagan times the administrative, and financial routine of administering religious affairs, and this routine was applied to the Christian Church.

Following the pattern set by Eusebius of Caesarea , the Byzantines viewed the Emperor as a representative or messenger of Christ , responsible particularly for the propagation of Christianity among pagans, and for the "externals" of the religion, such as administration and finances. As Cyril Mango points out, the Byzantine political thinking can be summarised in the motto "One God, one empire, one religion".

The imperial role in the affairs of the Church never developed into a fixed, legally defined system. As George Ostrogorsky points out:. The Patriarchate of Constantinople remained the center of the Orthodox world, with subordinate metropolitan sees and archbishoprics in the territory of Asia Minor and the Balkans, now lost to Byzantium, as well as in Caucasus , Russia and Lithuania.

The Church remained the most stable element in the Byzantine Empire. The official state Christian doctrine was determined by the first seven ecumenical councils , and it was then the emperor's duty to impose it to his subjects. An imperial decree of , which was later incorporated into the Codex Justinianus , orders the population of the Empire "to assume the name of Catholic Christians", and regards all those who will not abide by the law as "mad and foolish persons"; as followers of "heretical dogmas".

Despite imperial decrees and the stringent stance of the state church itself, which came to be known as the Eastern Orthodox Church or Eastern Christianity , the latter never represented all Christians in Byzantium. Mango believes that, in the early stages of the Empire, the "mad and foolish persons", those labelled " heretics " by the state church, were the majority of the population. This led to a significant religious crisis , which ended in mid-9th century with the restoration of icons.

During the same period, a new wave of pagans emerged in the Balkans, originating mainly from Slavic people. These were gradually Christianised , and by Byzantium's late stages, Eastern Orthodoxy represented most Christians and, in general, most people in what remained of the Empire. Jews were a significant minority in the Byzantine state throughout its history, and, according to Roman law, they constituted a legally recognised religious group.

In the early Byzantine period they were generally tolerated, but then periods of tensions and persecutions ensued. In any case, after the Arab conquests, the majority of Jews found themselves outside the Empire; those left inside the Byzantine borders apparently lived in relative peace from the 10th century onwards.

Georgian monasteries first appear in Constantinople and on Mount Olympos in northwestern Asia Minor in the second half of the ninth century, and from then on Georgians played an increasingly important role in the Empire. Surviving Byzantine art is mostly religious and with exceptions at certain periods is highly conventionalised, following traditional models that translate carefully controlled church theology into artistic terms. Painting in fresco , illuminated manuscripts and on wood panel and, especially in earlier periods, mosaic were the main media, and figurative sculpture very rare except for small carved ivories.

Manuscript painting preserved to the end some of the classical realist tradition that was missing in larger works.

This was especially so in Italy, where Byzantine styles persisted in modified form through the 12th century, and became formative influences on Italian Renaissance art.

But few incoming influences affected Byzantine style. By means of the expansion of the Eastern Orthodox church, Byzantine forms and styles spread to all the Orthodox world and beyond. In Byzantine literature, four different cultural elements are recognised: Byzantine literature is often classified in five groups: The only genuine heroic epic of the Byzantines is the Digenis Acritas. The remaining two groups include the new literary species: Of the approximately two to three thousand volumes of Byzantine literature that survive, only consist of secular poetry, history, science and pseudo-science.

The ecclesiastical forms of Byzantine music, composed to Greek texts as ceremonial, festival, or church music, [] are, today, the most well-known forms. Ecclesiastical chants were a fundamental part of this genre. Greek and foreign historians agree that the ecclesiastical tones and in general the whole system of Byzantine music is closely related to the ancient Greek system.

The 9th century Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih d. The second instrument, the organ, originated in the Hellenistic world see Hydraulis and was used in the Hippodrome during races. Pepin's son Charlemagne requested a similar organ for his chapel in Aachen in , beginning its establishment in Western church music.

Dio Chrysostom wrote in the 1st century of a contemporary sovereign possibly Nero who could play a pipe tibia , Roman reedpipes similar to Greek aulos with his mouth as well as by tucking a bladder beneath his armpit.

The Byzantine culture was, initially, the same as Late Greco-Roman, but over the following millennium of the empire's existence it slowly changed into something more similar to modern Balkan and Anatolian culture. Retsina , wine flavored with pine resin, was also drunk, as it still is in Greece today, producing similar reactions from unfamiliar visitors; "To add to our calamity the Greek wine, on account of being mixed with pitch, resin, and plaster was to us undrinkable," complained Liutprand of Cremona , who was the ambassador sent to Constantinople in by the German Holy Roman Emperor Otto I.

For most of its history, the Byzantine Empire did not know or use heraldry in the West European sense. The use of the cross, and of images of Christ , the Virgin Mary and various saints is also attested on seals of officials, but these were personal rather than family emblems. Apart from the Imperial court, administration and military, the primary language used in the eastern Roman provinces even before the decline of the Western Empire was Greek, having been spoken in the region for centuries before Latin.

Indeed, early on in the life of the Roman Empire, Greek had become the common language of the Church, the language of scholarship and the arts, and, to a large degree, the lingua franca for trade between provinces and with other nations. In the early 5th century, Greek gained equal status with Latin as official language in the East and emperors gradually began to legislate in Greek rather than Latin starting with the reign of Leo I the Thracian in the s []. He may also have been the last native Latin-speaking emperor [].

The use of Latin as the language of administration persisted until adoption of Greek as the sole official language by Heraclius in the 7th century. Scholarly Latin would rapidly fall into disuse among the educated classes although the language would continue to be at least a ceremonial part of the Empire's culture for some time. Many other languages existed in the multi-ethnic Empire, and some of these were given limited official status in their provinces at various times.

Notably, by the beginning of the Middle Ages, Syriac had become more widely used by the educated classes in the far eastern provinces. Aside from these languages, since Constantinople was a prime trading center in the Mediterranean region and beyond, virtually every known language of the Middle Ages was spoken in the Empire at some time, even Chinese. Byzantines were avid players of tavli Byzantine Greek: The game came from Sassanid Persia in the early period and a Tzykanisterion stadium for playing the game was built by Theodosius II r.

Emperor Basil I r. The Byzantine economy was among the most advanced in Europe and the Mediterranean for many centuries. Europe, in particular, could not match Byzantine economic strength until late in the Middle Ages. Constantinople operated as a prime hub in a trading network that at various times extended across nearly all of Eurasia and North Africa , in particular as the primary western terminus of the famous Silk Road.

Until the first half of the 6th century and in sharp contrast with the decaying West, the Byzantine economy was flourishing and resilient. The Plague of Justinian and the Arab conquests would represent a substantial reversal of fortunes contributing to a period of stagnation and decline.

Isaurian reforms and, in particular, Constantine V 's repopulation, public works and tax measures, marked the beginning of a revival that continued until , despite territorial contraction. The Fourth Crusade resulted in the disruption of Byzantine manufacturing and the commercial dominance of the Western Europeans in the eastern Mediterranean , events that amounted to an economic catastrophe for the Empire. Gradually, it also lost its influence on the modalities of trade and the price mechanisms, and its control over the outflow of precious metals and, according to some scholars, even over the minting of coins.

One of the economic foundations of Byzantium was trade, fostered by the maritime character of the Empire. Textiles must have been by far the most important item of export; silks were certainly imported into Egypt, and appeared also in Bulgaria, and the West. The government attempted to exercise formal control over interest rates, and set the parameters for the activity of the guilds and corporations, in which it had a special interest. The emperor and his officials intervened at times of crisis to ensure the provisioning of the capital, and to keep down the price of cereals.

Finally, the government often collected part of the surplus through taxation, and put it back into circulation, through redistribution in the form of salaries to state officials, or in the form of investment in public works. Byzantium has been often identified with absolutism, orthodox spirituality, orientalism and exoticism, while the terms "Byzantine" and "Byzantinism" have been used as bywords for decadence, complex bureaucracy, and repression.

In the countries of Central and Southeast Europe that exited the Eastern Bloc in the late s and early s, the assessment of Byzantine civilisation and its legacy was strongly negative due to their connection with an alleged "Eastern authoritarianism and autocracy.

Even in 19th-century Greece , the focus was mainly on the classical past, while Byzantine tradition had been associated with negative connotations. This traditional approach towards Byzantium has been partially or wholly disputed and revised by modern studies, which focus on the positive aspects of Byzantine culture and legacy. Averil Cameron regards as undeniable the Byzantine contribution to the formation of the medieval Europe, and both Cameron and Obolensky recognise the major role of Byzantium in shaping Orthodoxy, which in turn occupies a central position in the history and societies of Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Russia, Georgia, Serbia and other countries.

As the only stable long-term state in Europe during the Middle Ages, Byzantium isolated Western Europe from newly emerging forces to the East.

From a different perspective, since the 7th century, the evolution and constant reshaping of the Byzantine state were directly related to the respective progress of Islam. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the medieval Roman empire. For other uses, see Byzantine disambiguation. Tremissis with the image of Justinian the Great r. The empire at its greatest extent in AD under Justinian the Great its vassals in pink. Latin — Greek — The Empire of Nicaea is considered the legitimate continuation of the Byzantine Empire because they managed to re-take Constantinople.

He died in AD, dividing the empire in western and eastern halves. Laiou, The Economic History of Byzantium , Part of a series on the. Art Government Economy Army Navy. Names of the Greeks. History of the Byzantine Empire. Byzantium under the Constantinian and Valentinian dynasties. The Western Roman Empire. Byzantine Empire under the Justinian dynasty.

Byzantine Empire under the Heraclian dynasty. Byzantine Empire under the Isaurian dynasty. Byzantine Empire under the Macedonian dynasty.

Byzantine Empire under the Komnenos dynasty and Komnenian restoration. Byzantine civilisation in the 12th century. Decline of the Byzantine Empire. Byzantine Empire under the Angelos dynasty. Siege of Constantinople and Siege of Constantinople Byzantine Empire under the Palaiologos dynasty. Byzantine—Ottoman Wars and Fall of Constantinople. Byzantine science , Byzantine medicine , and Byzantine law.

Byzantine art and Byzantine literature. Byzantine flags and insignia. Byzantine economy and Byzantine silk. Third Rome and Greek scholars in the Renaissance. An Historical Geography of Europe, — , p. Archived from the original on 24 September The last Greek Empire of the Byzantine Era: Argonaut, , pp.

They were well aware of their role as heirs of the Roman Empire, which for many centuries had united under a single government the whole Mediterranean world and much that was outside it. Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies. Diplomacy gone to seed: International Journal of Kurdish Studies. T 22 August A portable sundial with calendrical gearing". The Johns Hopkins University Press. A History of Medicine: Byzantine and Islamic medicine.

The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. University of Chicago Press. The Beginnings of Western Science. Book 1, Title 1 ; Blume , Headnote C.

Harvard Studies in Classical Philology. Department of the Classics, Harvard University. On the Philosopher Volume V. Retrieved 25 June Dried meat, a forerunner of the pastirma of modern Turkey, became a delicacy. Cured meats were either eaten raw or cooked in pasto-mageireia with bulgur and greens, mainly cabbage. Report of his Mission to Constantinople". Internet History Sourcebooks Project. Modern Greek in Asia Minor. A study of dialect of Silly, Cappadocia and Pharasa. Munro Series 1, Vol 3: University of Pennsylvania Press.

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Report on the Dumbarton Oaks Symposium of ". The Byzantine Empire, — The Legacy of Byzantium". Retrieved 21 May Apostolides, Sophocles Evangelinus Greek Lexicon of the Roman and Byzantine Periods. The Journal of Hellenic Studies. The American Journal of Philology. Baynes, Norman Hepburn The English Historical Review. An Introduction to East Roman Civilization. The Medieval Greek Romance. New York and London: Beckwith, John [].

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Kennikat Press, University of Michigan. In Jonathan Shepard, Simon Franklin. Languages and Their Status. Tastes and Pleasures of Ancient and Byzantine Cuisine. The Oxford Companion to Food.

The Journal of Economic History. Three Byzantine Military Treatises. The Essential World History. El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria Byzantium Viewed by the Arabs. Esler, Philip Francis The Early Christian World. Evans, James Allan Stewart The Emperor Justinian and the Byzantine Empire. Byzantium, Faith and Power — Faas, Patrick []. Around the Roman Table: Food and Feasting in Ancient Rome.

The early medieval Balkans. The University of Michigan Press.

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