Such a methodology is crucial especially in response to a pluralist society today. Before I further reinforce my claim, it is important to recognize a limit of the theory of minimalist ethics. One of the possible fallacies of minimalist ethics is that it implies that an action is ethical as long as it does not hurt anybody. The simplistic and consequentialist nature of this school of ethics provides loopholes for actions done for pure self-interest that indirectly bring negative consequences for others.
Thus, the minimalist approach should only be interpreted as a methodology, not as a moral guidance. It is imperative that the minimalist ground should not be manipulated as the sole justification for all kinds of actions. How should a minimalist common ground be established to reinforce the applicability of moral pluralism? We should recognize that no single individual or group has precisely the same perception of truth and reality due to the differences in religious faith, personal experience and other factors.
Just as cognitive relativism embraces moral relativism, cognitive diversity promotes different applications of moral values. Such a limit signifies the line between ungrounded perspective such as superstitions and rational logic that is based on empirical examination and truths. William James, a modern advocate of pragmatism, synthesizes the best elements of Empiricism and Idealism.
He opposes the prevailing notion of his academic colleagues that only scientific methods can lead to an understanding of the human condition, yet, criticizes any extreme reliance on logic as the sole basis of philosophical truth. In line with his philosophy, the powerful combination of empirical truth and philosophical logic excludes ungrounded practices that are against common humanity.
For example, in Southern Sudan, the practice of sacrificing the spear master by the Dinkas became completely unjustified when the tribe survived after the practice was outlawed. Thus, cognitive or cultural perceptions, which deviate from the examined truth and accepted rationality, should be excluded from the common ground. Apart from that, to ensure moral progress, the common ground requires that context-independent values not only supercede cultural practices, but also serve to reform the culture itself.
A flexibility with regard to the prioritization of moral values is another principle that should be emphasized to ensure that the goal of the common good be achieved.
For pluralism, there is a plurality of reasonable rankings in the light of different equally reasonable conceptions of good life. The central claim of moral pluralism that there is not a single moral value that is superior to others, should not be seem as justifying the claim that there is no possibility of assigning priority among different moral values according to different contexts. Admittedly, such an approach tends to borrow a shade of pragmatism the doctrine that a statement is true and meaningful according to the practical results that would be experienced if that statement were acted upon.
However, it is important to recognize that such a flexibility should not be equalized with the extreme form of pragmatism, which normally involves an attempt to wipe out the distinction between different kinds of truths. For a pragmatist, an action is not true because it corresponds to reality; therefore, there is no need to worry what sort of reality that makes that action the right one to perform. Moral pluralism has its metaphysical forms and does not deny the distinction between objective reality and ultimate reality.
In Absolutism and Its Consequentialist Critics, Joram Graf Haber holds the position that one should be truthful to the murderer under whatsoever circumstances. In fact, to achieve the greater good, it is justified that an individual ould prioritize his or her responsibilities to prevent inhumane acts and protect the good innocence , with due consideration of the risks and possible consequences.
In utilitarianism, no actions are intrinsically right or wrong as long as the goal of an action is to achieve the greatest happiness. Happiness or pleasure is not the sole and ultimate motivation of action. In conclusion, moral pluralism stands out among all types of moral theories presented by Kellenberger. This theory leaves the question of what absolute moral command is founded on open and unanswered. Yet, the nature of moral relativism as over-tolerating all perspectives are equally valid , makes it unrealistic and dysfunctional in reaching the goal of the common good of human kind.
This theory denies the fact that judgements are crucial in ensuring social order and harmony. Thus, the three principles proposed above, namely, the unambiguous categorization of moral values, the establishment of a minimalist common ground, and a flexibility with regard to the prioritizing of moral values, must be understood and integrated, to increase the applicability and universality of moral pluralism.
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The 17th century engendered more narrowly religious essays. After the Restoration, the moral essay, as practiced by Abraham Cowley and Sir William Temple, returned to general reflections on life in the style of Montaigne.
Another powerful influence on the tradition of the moral essay was the revival of the Theophrastan character sketch modeled on his Characters. The moral essay soon found a place in the popular gazettes that prospered during the 18th century.
Richard Steele and Joseph Addison wrote serious essays on topics such as death, education, and loyalty for the Tatler and the Spectator. Their use of wit and satire to expose the foibles of the vain, the indolent, and the incompetent had a lasting impact on popular essayists. The latter half of the 18th century was perhaps the pinnacle for the moral essay. The desire of the rising middle class for social improvement resulted in a ready market for pamphlets, sermons, and moral treatises of every kind.
The preeminent practitioner of this art was Samuel Johnson, who found in his Rambler and Idler essays an ideal form for his moral and philosophical inquiry. Although Johnson is not humorless in his essays, he evinces a formality of style and a high moral purpose in most of his work. His writing on diligence, prudence, piety, and simplicity retains the manner, if not the dogma, of earlier pietist writers. Although diverse in their opinions, all of these writers challenged the established order in some way: Carlyle was an outspoken critic of the philistinism of the commercial class; Mill was a leading voice for liberalism in both intellectual and political causes; Arnold championed the role of culture as the principal impetus toward moral action in society; and Huxley was the leading advocate of abandoning the classical model of education for one founded on science.
Even those essayists whose social agenda was rather traditional, such as John Henry Newman, were writing in reaction to the tides of change around them. The moralist tradition has been preserved in British letters in the 20th century by essayists such as G.
Lewis, both of whom laid claim to specifically Christian morals. More broadly, essayists such as E. Forster and George Orwell appeal to a sense of good manners and fair play. It is difficult to name any major American essayist of the 20th century who could be considered a Johnsonian moralist.
However, a moral vision clearly underpins most of the essayists working for social change, whether appealing for civil rights James Baldwin, Martin Luther King, Jr.
Some critics have seen the essay as a literary form in decline because of its close connection to Enlightenment ideals, which have increasingly come under question.
Moral pluralism has its metaphysical forms and does not deny the distinction between objective reality and ultimate reality. A flexibility in prioritizing moral values is an antidote of the Kantian principle of the “absolute moral law” or .
Powerful Essays words | ( pages) | Preview Duty and Morality in Kant’s Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals - This selection is only the first section of Immanuel Kant’s Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals.
Moral values essaysAs soon as I was able to read, my parents made me memorize the Ten Commandments. In addition, they took the time to explain each and every one to me. Even in the earliest years of my life, these rules seemed fairly basic and simple to . The Importance of Moral Values in Our Life essay sample. The Importance of Moral Values essay example. Feel free to buy custom essays, term papers, research papers at .
Moral Essays (also known as Epistles to Several Persons) is a series of four poems on ethical subjects by Alexander Pope, published between and The individual poems are as follows: Epistle to Cobham (, addressed to Sir Richard Temple, Lord Cobham), "Of the Knowledge and Characters of Men".Author: Alexander Pope. Moral Values Essay Conclusion As we have clarified, the concept of moral values is quite many-sided and is defined as a behavioral code that has a certain influence on people’s choices ruling their decisions about “the good” and “the bad” issues.