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Benjamin Franklin

Electricity

❶He married his first wife, Anne Child, in about in Ecton and immigrated with her to Boston in ; they had three children before immigrating, and four after. He considered becoming an itinerant teacher of swimming, but, when Thomas Denham, a Quaker merchant, offered him a clerkship in his store in Philadelphia with a prospect of fat commissions in the West Indian trade, he decided to return home.

Early life (1706–23)

Youthful adventures (1723–26)
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In , the Franklin Stove came on to the market, allowing homeowners to get more heat into their homes for each unit of fuel they burned. Cold air blue gains heat from contact with the hot stove. As this warming air continues on its path, it gains more heat through contact with metal, the other side of which is in contact with the hot smoke red going to the flue.

The use of these fireplaces in very many houses, both of this and the neighboring colonies, has been, and is, a great saving of wood to the inhabitants. In , Franklin founded the American Philosophical Society. In those days, scientists were called philosophers. In summer , Franklin visited his hometown of Boston. Always seeking new knowledge, he visited a science show.

There he saw Dr. Archibald Spencer, who had arrived from Scotland, demonstrating a variety of scientific phenomena. The electrical part of the show intrigued Franklin most: Franklin left the show determined to learn more about electricity.

It seemed to him that Dr. This, of course, was true: It was more a source of entertainment than a science. In , Franklin got hold of a long glass tube for the efficient generation of static electricity from Peter Collinson in London.

He identified that there was an electrical fluid that could flow from A to B. To describe the process he coined the terms positive and negative to describe the difference between A and B after the electrical fluid had flowed. Of course, today we would call the electrical fluid electrons , but remember: It means that you cannot create or destroy electric charge.

Franklin was also the first person to use the words electrical battery. His meaning was not the same as ours though. His battery was made of capacitors known as Leyden jars wired together in series to store more charge than one alone could. This enabled Franklin to produce a bigger discharge of static electricity in his experiments. In , Franklin published the fruits of his labors in a book called Experiments and Observations on Electricity , which was widely read in Britain and then Europe, shaping a new understanding of electricity.

In , Franklin carried out his most famous scientific work, proving that lightning is electricity. He did this using one of his own discoveries: From the middle of the stand, let an iron rod rise and pass bending out of the door, and then upright 20 or 30 feet, pointed very sharp at the end.

If the electrical stand be kept clean and dry, a man standing on it when such clouds are passing low might be electrified and afford sparks, the rod drawing fire to him from a cloud. If any danger to the man should be apprehended although I think there would be none let him stand on the floor of his box, and now and then bring near to the rod a loop of wire that has one end fastened to the leads he his holding by a wax handle; so the sparks, if the rod is electrified, will strike from the rod to the wire and not affect him.

Franklin himself carried out similar work in , using a kite with a metal key connected to a Leyden Jar to prove his theory.

The significance of the lightning rod experiments was that they established the study of electricity as a serious scientific discipline. Franklin had shown how to prove that electrical phenomena, such as lightning, were a fundamental force of nature. Electricity would never again be thought of as just an interesting plaything for scientists and showmen to conjure up using glass rods. Very soon, in , when he was aged 47, the transformation in science that Franklin had brought about was recognized.

A building protected by a lightning rod. A cable carries electricity from lightning to ground. Like his other ideas, he did not patent it: Since the time he invented it, it has saved societies all over the world great amounts of time and money by protecting buildings from damage.

It has also, of course, saved countless lives. In , working with John Hadley in Cambridge, England, Franklin investigated the principle of refrigeration by evaporation. We now know the reason for the refrigeration effect. We have learned that molecules in a liquid have a range of energies. Some have high energy, and some have low energy. Molecules carrying the most energy escape from the liquid most easily — they evaporate.

This leaves the lower energy molecules in the liquid. The result is that the temperature of the liquid falls. In fact, the principle of cooling by evaporation had been publicly demonstrated by William Cullen in Edinburgh, Scotland in Cullen had used a pump to lower the pressure above ether in a container. Benjamin was very talented in Mathematics, but mostly science. Benjamin decided that he was going to sell his printing press business in He was elected to the Pennsylvania Assembly in In he was the delegate that went to Albany to discuss different ways of dealing with the threat of the French and Indian War.

In , Benjamin Franklin went to England to petition the king for the right to levy taxes on proprietary lands. Suffering many great hardships, Benjamin traveled to Canada in the effort to enlist the support and also the cooperation in the Revolutionary War.

When he came back to Pennsylvania, he was one of the five people that were chosen to draft the Declaration of Independence. He was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. Benjamin made this statement: Benjamin left all his responsibilities and duties in France and went back to Philadelphia.

He was picked right away to become the president of the Pennsylvania executive council. Two months after encouraging the abolition of slavery, Benjamin died at home. He was eighty-four years old. He was known for contributing to the formation of the United States and representing the country.

He was also known for experimenting with electricity and developing inventions. Although people think of Benjamin Franklin as a genius, he only had less than three years of good education.

His curiosity is what kept challenging him to learn more about things. He was a very talented and skilled diplomat, that negotiated treaties with many places, such as Great Britain, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and France. He was also a well-respected scientist.

As you can see, Benjamin Franklin was many different things in his lifetime. Along with many other jobs and things, he was a publisher of the Pennsylvania Gazette.

He created a new style of journalism. That style quickly became the foundation for all of American news coverage. It became the most successful newspaper in all of the colonies. The Pennsylvania Gazette printed the first political cartoon, done by Benjamin Franklin. Benjamin Franklin also had a part in the signing of the constitution. He gave his final speech in the constitutional convention.

He said that he did not entirely approve of the constitution. After awhile he finally said that he will agree in the signing of the constitution, because he thought that a general government would be a good and necessary thing for us. Franklin also loved reading and writing things. He would read every book that he could get his hands on. Reading and writing so many things is part of why he became so smart.

Benjamin Franklin had so many accomplishments in his life. One of his accomplishments was establishing the first fire company and the first fire insurance company so that people would be safer.

Other accomplishments include all of his inventions, which were the invention of bifocal glasses, the Franklin Stove, the lightning rod, and swimming fins. Some other great accomplishments are being elected to the Pennsylvania Assembly, being chose president of the Pennsylvania executive council, his great skill in diplomacy, and being a framer of the Constitution. An interesting fact about Benjamin Franklin is that when he was sixteen years old, he became a vegetarian so that he could save money in order to buy more books to read.

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From through , Benjamin Franklin was happily settled in London. In England he was renowned as a famous scientist, and until he staunchly believed that America and its mother country could be reconciled. Craven Street is the only one of Franklin’s many residences that still remains Employees:

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Benjamin Franklin was many things in his lifetime: a printer, a postmaster, an ambassador, an author, a scientist, a Founding Father. Above all, he was an inventor, creating solutions to common problems, innovating new technology, and even making life a little more musical. Benjamin Franklin has no desire to impede the powers of Britain or Parliament, but rather was attempting to create an extension of their powers. The design of a Ground Council was the culminating work of all Franklin¶s efforts.5/5(1).

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Benjamin Franklin: If ever a story embodied what has come to be known as the American dream, it is the life story of Benjamin Franklin. The work ethic of Franklin could be considered a passionate and energetic man who motivated himself by self-determination and his strong work ethic to achieve self-improvement. Benjamin Franklin’s Early Life and Education. Benjamin Franklin was born on January 17, , in Boston, Massachusetts. His father, Josiah, was a tallow chandler, candle maker, and soap boiler who had moved to the American Colonies from England.