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Citation: Definition, Types, Writing Guidelines

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❶Franck, Caroline, et al. Multiple In-Text Citations When multiple studies support what you have to say, you can include multiple citations inside the same set of parentheses.

January 27, 2011

Ways of Using Citation
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MLA In-Text Citations: The Basics

U of California P, When a source has a corporate author, it is acceptable to use the name of the corporation followed by the page number for the in-text citation.

You should also use abbreviations e. When a source has no known author, use a shortened title of the work instead of an author name. Place the title in quotation marks if it's a short work such as an article or italicize it if it's a longer work e.

In this example, since the reader does not know the author of the article, an abbreviated title of the article appears in the parenthetical citation which corresponds to the full name of the article which appears first at the left-hand margin of its respective entry in the Works Cited.

Thus, the writer includes the title in quotation marks as the signal phrase in the parenthetical citation in order to lead the reader directly to the source on the Works Cited page. The Works Cited entry appears as follows:.

We'll learn how to make a Works Cited page in a bit, but right now it's important to know that parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work.

Page numbers are always required, but additional citation information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work like Marx and Engels's The Communist Manifesto. In such cases, give the page number of your edition making sure the edition is listed in your Works Cited page, of course followed by a semicolon, and then the appropriate abbreviations for volume vol.

When you cite a work that appears inside a larger source like, for instance, an article in a periodical or an essay in a collection , cite the author of the internal source i. For example, to cite Albert Einstein's article "A Brief Outline of the Theory of Relativity," which was published in Nature in , you might write something like this:. See also our page on documenting periodicals in the Works Cited.

Sometimes more information is necessary to identify the source from which a quotation is taken. For instance, if two or more authors have the same last name, provide both authors' first initials or even the authors' full name if different authors share initials in your citation.

Best, David, and Sharon Marcus. Franck, Caroline, et al. If you cite more than one work by a particular author, include a shortened title for the particular work from which you are quoting to distinguish it from the others. Put short titles of books in italics and short titles of articles in quotation marks. Additionally, if the author's name is not mentioned in the sentence, format your citation with the author's name followed by a comma, followed by a shortened title of the work, followed, when appropriate, by page numbers:.

If you cite from different volumes of a multivolume work, always include the volume number followed by a colon. Put a space after the colon, then provide the page number s. If you only cite from one volume, provide only the page number in parentheses. In your first parenthetical citation, you want to make clear which Bible you're using and underline or italicize the title , as each version varies in its translation, followed by book do not italicize or underline , chapter and verse.

Sometimes you may have to use an indirect source. An indirect source is a source cited in another source. For such indirect quotations, use "qtd. Note that, in most cases, a responsible researcher will attempt to find the original source, rather than citing an indirect source.

With more and more scholarly work being posted on the Internet, you may have to cite research you have completed in virtual environments. While many sources on the Internet should not be used for scholarly work reference the OWL's Evaluating Sources of Information resource , some Web sources are perfectly acceptable for research.

When creating in-text citations for electronic, film, or Internet sources, remember that your citation must reference the source in your Works Cited. Sometimes writers are confused with how to craft parenthetical citations for electronic sources because of the absence of page numbers, but often, these sorts of entries do not require a page number in the parenthetical citation. For electronic and Internet sources, follow the following guidelines:.

Filmverlag der Autoren, In the first example, the writer has chosen not to include the author name in-text; however, two entries from the same author appear in the Works Cited. Russell, Tony, et al. To cite multiple sources in the same parenthetical reference, separate the citations by a semi-colon:. When creating in-text citations for media that has a runtime, such as a movie or podcast, include the range of hours, minutes and seconds you plan to reference, like so Common sense and ethics should determine your need for documenting sources.

You do not need to give sources for familiar proverbs, well-known quotations or common knowledge. Remember that citing sources is a rhetorical task, and, as such, can vary based on your audience. If you're writing for an expert audience of a scholarly journal, for example, you may need to deal with expectations of what constitutes "common knowledge" that differ from common norms.

Purdue Online Writing Lab. Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" Wordsworth Wordsworth extensively explored the role of emotion in the creative process Human beings have been described by Kenneth Burke as "symbol-using animals" 3. We see so many global warming hotspots in North America likely because this region has "more readily accessible climatic data and more comprehensive programs to monitor and study environmental change.

Marx and Engels described human history as marked by class struggles 79; ch. For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: For sources such as websites and e-books that have no page numbers, use a paragraph number instead, for example: In-text citations follow any sentence in your writing that contains a direct quote, or paraphrased or summarized information from an outside source. Each in-text citation in your writing must also have a corresponding entry in your References list.

There are two exceptions to this rule: These types of sources should be cited by in-text citations only. If you mention the author and the year in your writing to introduce the quote or paraphrased material, then you need only include the page or paragraph number in the in-text citation.

Because most online sources do not contain page numbers, use the paragraph number. While many online sources may include numbers beside the paragraphs, others may not, and you might have to count them yourself. Sometimes the quote you want to use is quoted by someone else in another source, like your textbook. You can still use that quote inside the textbook — this is called citing from a secondary source.

In this case, the secondary source is your textbook and its author; the primary source is the quote and its author.


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Download the Writing Roundabout eBook to understand the challenges involved in planning, drafting, revising, and editing your academic writing. Citations As an academic writer, you must document all of the sources of information that you include in your papers, presentations, and any other projects.

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As the name author–date system implies, APA Style in-text citations include the author and date, either both inside parentheses or with the author names in running text and the date in parentheses. Here are two examples: After the intervention, children increased in the number of books read per.

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A citation number, used in some citation systems, is a number or symbol added inline and usually in superscript, to refer readers to a footnote or endnote that cites the source. In other citation systems, an inline parenthetical reference is used rather than a citation number, with limited information such as the author’s last name, year of. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook (8 th ed.), offers examples for the general format of MLA research papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page.

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In-Text Citation Guide What are in-text citations? An in-text citation is a citation within your writing to show where you found your information, facts, quotes, and research. APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the .