Despite early preference for Xenophon, many twentieth-century scholars have argued that Plato's portrayal of Socrates presents the more accurate version, however flawed by idealism it may be. Xenophon has been criticized by scholars such as E. Zeller for the simple and unphilosophic manner in which Socrates is depicted.
Others, such as J. Forbes, have suggested that Xenophon's presentation of Socrates as a moral censor and teacher of practical values, rather than as a philosophic revolutionary, may have been driven by Xenophon's intention of minimizing the "revolutionary aspects of the thought of Socrates.
Rogers has argued that preference for Xenophon stems from the distrust of Plato, who may have created his version of Socrates as a mouthpiece for his own philosophy. Yet Rogers has gone on to caution that Xenophon is an apologist and should not be trusted more than Plato.
Dubs has supported the case for Plato and has suggested that Xenophon may have gotten some of his information about Socrates from Plato. Dubs has also argued that while Plato may have "put words in So-crates's mouth" it is precisely because of the fact that Plato was an accomplished artist that we should trust his portrayal of Socrates: Plato, Dubs stressed, would have only made Socrates utter what would have been "thoroughly appropriate" for Socrates to say.
Bury has also stressed the value of Plato's version over that of Xenophon, stating that the Socrates who emerges from Plato's Dialogues is "a figure probably resembling the real Socrates.
Hackforth, have maintained that criticism of Xeno-phon is too harsh, and that while Xenophon may have not been sufficiently interested in philosophy to do justice to the portrayal of Socrates, Plato was too much involved in his subject matter to be objective.
Critics such as Luis Navia have suggested ways in which these apparently contradictory accounts may be reconciled. Forbes has also argued for using a combination of testimonies, as well as a study of the development of Socrates's philosophy, in order to identify a consistent and faithful view of Socrates. The concepts of knowledge, virtue, and goodness are intertwined in the philosophy of Socrates.
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Refusing to accept exile from Athens or a commitment to silence as his penalty, he maintains that public discussion of the great issues of life and that virtue is a necessary part of any valuable human life Meno attempts to define virtue as the following: Morality Socrates engages in conversations with people claiming to be experts, usual in ethical matters.
By asking simple questions, Socrates gradually reveals that these people were in fact very confused and did not actually know anything about the matters about which they claimed to be an expert Socrates and His Innocence Socrates lived such a private life that it lead to the most important revelation of his entire life.
He would go about his life doing nothing but self-examination The apology of Socrates Socrates argues that the charges are absurd and that it is a waste of the courts time. He continues his defense with questions, a lot of which he answers himself Firstly, there is the possibility that Socrates merely asked the right questions, bringing the knowledge that was suppressed in the boy's mind out so he could solve the problems Socrates was always fascinated with the solving of questions, both big and small; his approach was to use the Socratic method of inquiry, wherein he would break the problem down into several questions, and then systematically find the answers to each question in order to find the larger answer.
It was a methodical and practical approach to show his ultimate quest for seeking the true knowledge. According to him, philosophy starts by admitting that you are ignorant of the truth, which is what he does here. It is with this approach to philosophical questions and dilemmas — the use of Socratic irony — that Socrates chooses to engage with his audience and demonstrate why he did what he did.
The Socratic method of dialectical investigation utilized arguments to try and determine ethics and truth. Two techniques were primarily used by Socrates: Assumptions and presumptions would be challenged in order to discover what was true. Socrates focused on valuing thought above all else. His primary method was asking questions, developing hypotheses, and testing them to see if the evidence supported them.
Socrates, for the most part, values the integrity of society, and feels as though a group of people coming together to form a community should be respected by honoring the social contract.
At the same time, there are aspects of the self that are more important than a communal whole, and a society must be made up of individuals that follow the principles shared by the whole. One should not be forced to behave in a manner inconsistent with their beliefs; an ideal society is comprised of individuals who may all subscribe to the different philosophies but are able to listen and except others idea the same time. As Socrates mentioned in the text that a person should be judge by what he have down, not by his behavior.
It is only then that justice can be really served. He presents himself as the ideal philosopher, being unwavering in his justification for his actions and wishing to inspire his audience.
Using his own use of figure of speech and his Socratic principles, he breaks down discussions he has with characters such as the Delphic oracle, Meletus, and more to expound his ideas. When the oracle of Delphi told Chaerephon that no one is wiser than Socrates, he chose to go on a journey to deal with this paradox; he knew he was ignorant, so he could not be wiser than everyone else.
To that end, he questioned politicians, poets and craftsmen, it coming to the ineffable conclusion that none of them knew what they were talking about either. To that end, he was able to act as himself and maintain his integrity. During the trial, Socrates holds everyone else to the same standard; when he talks about Meletus, his accuser, he calls him out on not actually caring about what he professes to care about — namely, the charges against Socrates.
Through the trial, Socrates has proved not only Meletus do not care about the matter he mentioned in the charge, also he has no idea what is he talking about either a lot or a little, Socrates cleverly seduced Meletus go into his trap, by using the anger that Meletus hold against Socrates.
Apology- Plato essays "Socrates is a doer of evil and corrupter of the youth, and he does not believe in the gods of the state. He has other new divinities of his own."(Apology 41) In The Apology, by Plato, these are the accusations brought against Socrates during his trial.
Free Apology papers, essays, and research papers. Plato's Apology - Plato's Apology Plato’s Apology is the story of the trial of Socrates, the charges brought against him and his maintaining of his own innocence throughout the process.
Socrates – “The Apology” or (Defense) Socrates had no written work, never had a job and there are questions of whether he was even literate. However, Plato was a student of Socrates and recorded what occurred at his death trial. In this essay I will discuss the character of Socrates as he is presented in the Apology, I will look at Socrates as a religious fanatic and an apostle of reason. I will provide an argument from my own personal stance that the character of Socrates in the Apology is a variation of .
– Socrates The Apology In this literature review I will discuss both Socrates and Jesus Christ (Jesus). I will compare and distinguish them, by their trial, misdeeds (through the view of . Oct 25, · Apology by Plato essay. In Plato’s Apology, the reader finds much interesting information about the philosophic thought that is derived from Socrates’ defense speech. Socrates, Plato’s teachers and friend, is ready to defend himself.5/5(3).