The assigned medium was then isolated to mL for each group and then Ca OH 2 was gradually added to the solution until it is saturated. Table 1 shows the volume by which hydroxide ions saturated in the different solutions by hydronium ions present in 0.
Table 2 shows the calcium and hydroxide ion concentrations obtained at different media. This is due to the diverse non-common ion effect. The ions of KCl tend to surround the participating ions, thus increasing the solubility and the Ksp of the product.
Conclusion and Recommendations The experimental value of Ksp obtained is 2. It was observed that as the ionic strength increases, the solubility increases. The presence of the common ion showed a decrease in solubility product from the experiment. Different factors may have affected the experimental value of the solubility product.
The possible contamination of reagents in the apparatus used in the experiment may have affected the outcome of the value. Since the literature value is set at 25 oC, the experiment should have been done at the same temperature to minimize the possible error.
The titration procedure may have affected also the outcome of the experiment since the equivalence point should have a color of mixed bright pink pigment and colorless throughout the titration process.
The researcher recommends the following for the improvement of the experiment or for alternative research related to the experiment: General Chemistry 9th ed. Retrieved January 20, , from Fact Monster: Hows Does a Spectrophotometer Work. Transition elements contain ions that present in aqueous solution as complex ions. A metal ion with a molecule called a ligand are called complex ion and it attached through coordinate covalent bonds.
A complex salt is an ionic compound but it differs in the fact that there are these covalent bonds attaching the metal to the ligand. For example in iron II ion, it exists in Introduction Titration is defined as technique whereby one solution of accurately known concentration also known as the titrant is added slowly into another solution of unknown concentration until a neutralization reaction is reached.
There are several types of titration methods in chemistry. Firstly, is the acid-base titration method which was carried out during this experiment. In the strong acid-weak base titration, 0. Ammonium hydroxide was then titrated slowly into the conical flask and the conical flask was swirled gently to ensure the reaction is The compounds you will work with do have some hazards associated with them. Therefore, it is important to follow the safety rules outlined in this lab manual.
You should assume that all compounds encountered in the laboratory are toxic and handle them accordingly. Safety goggles for eye protection are recommended and lab coats are Introduction Currently, fertilizers used on the West Coast are made and then transported from other parts of New Zealand.
Because fertilizers have a reasonably large mass the cost of this transport can be expensive. This report will investigate the processes involved in making superphosphate fertilizer, including the manufacture of sulfuric acid from sulfur using the contact process.
Also in this report will be an outline Sorry, but copying text is forbidden on this website. If you need this or any other sample, we can send it to you via email.
It is large enough that its solutions are basic according to the following reaction:. Calcium hydroxide portlandite dissolves in pure water to produce an alkaline solution with a pH of about Calcium hydroxide solutions can cause chemical burns. At high pH value see common ion effect , its solubility drastically decreases. This behavior is relevant to cement pastes. Aqueous solutions of calcium hydroxide are called limewater and are medium strength bases that reacts with acids and can attack some metals such as aluminium amphoteric hydroxide dissolving at high pH while protecting other metals from corrosion such as iron and steel by passivation of their surface.
Limewater turns milky in the presence of carbon dioxide due to formation of calcium carbonate , a process called carbonatation:. Calcium hydroxide adopts a polymeric structure, as do all metal hydroxides.
The structure is identical to that of Mg OH 2 brucite structure ; i. Strong hydrogen bonds exist between the layers. In the laboratory it can be prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and sodium hydroxide. The mineral form, portlandite , is relatively rare but can be found in some volcanic, plutonic , and metamorphic rocks.
It has also been known to arise in burning coal dumps. The reason for this rather uncommon phenomenon is that the dissolution of calcium hydroxide in water is an exothermic process, and also adheres to Le Chatelier's principle.
A lowering of temperature thus favours the elimination of the heat liberated through the process of dissolution and increases the equilibrium constant of dissolution of Ca OH 2 , and so increase its solubility at low temperature. This counter-intuitive temperature dependence of the solubility is referred to as "retrograde" or "inverse" solubility. The variably hydrated phases of calcium sulfate gypsum , bassanite and anhydrite also exhibit a retrograde solubility for the same reason because their dissolution reactions are exothermic.
One significant application of calcium hydroxide is as a flocculant , in water and sewage treatment. It forms a fluffy charged solid that aids in the removal of smaller particles from water, resulting in a clearer product. This application is enabled by the low cost and low toxicity of calcium hydroxide.
It is also used in fresh water treatment for raising the pH of the water so that pipes will not corrode where the base water is acidic, because it is self-regulating and does not raise the pH too much.
It is also used in the preparation of ammonia gas NH 3 , using the following reaction:. Another large application is in the paper industry, where it is an intermediate in the reaction in the production of sodium hydroxide.
This conversion is part of the causticizing step in the Kraft process for making pulp. Because of its low toxicity and the mildness of its basic properties, slaked lime is widely used in the food industry to:.
In Spanish, calcium hydroxide is called cal. Maize cooked with cal nixtamalization becomes hominy nixtamal , which significantly increases the bioavailability of niacin, and it is also considered tastier and easier to digest. In chewing coca leaves , calcium hydroxide is usually chewed alongside to keep the alkaloid stimulants chemically available for absorption by the body. Similarly, Native Americans traditionally chewed tobacco leaves with calcium hydroxide derived from burnt mollusc shells to enhance the effects.
It has also been used by some indigenous American tribes as an ingredient in yopo , a psychedelic snuff prepared from the beans of some Anadenanthera species.
1. Calculate the [OH–] from the results of your titrations. Explain your calculations. 2. Calculate the [Ca2+]. Explain your calculations. 3. Calculate the Ksp for calcium hydroxide. Explain your calculations. 4. Find the accepted value of the Ksp for calcium hydroxide and compare it with your value.
3. To find a Ksp value, you really need to know the concentration of one ion. For example, if you know that in solution the [OH-] = x , what does the [Ca2+] have to be?
Determining Ksp of Calcium Hydroxide Introduction Aqueous calcium hydroxide, also known as lime water is used to verify the presence of carbon dioxide gas, (carbon dioxide reacts with the calcium hydroxide to produce calcium carbonate) this is achieved by bubbling the gas through the solution, if the solution turns cloudy then the precipitate calcium carbonate has formed, thus carbon dioxide is present. Calculate the average number of drops of HCl used. Calculate the molarity of the OHÑ ion by using the formula M a x V a = M c x V c; Determine the molarity of the calcium ion. Calculate the Ksp of calcium hydroxide Ksp = [Ca 2 +] [OH-] 2; Calculate the molarity of a saturated Ca(OH) 2 solution in moles/liter.
Determining the Ksp of Calcium Hydroxide by Titration of Saturated Ca(OH)2(aq) with HCl(aq) Abstract: Titration is a technique that has been used in this experiment to identify the Ksp value of calcium hydroxide in order to determine the extent to which the compound is soluble in water. Example #2: mL of saturated calcium hydroxide solution was titrated. It was found that it reacted completely with mL of mol L HCl. (a) Determine the solubility of Ca(OH) 2 in grams per liter.