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❶A news release that claims "the White House declared" rather that "the President declared" is using metonymy.

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An indirect reference to something usually from literature, etc. An event or situation that may be interpreted in more than one way-- this is done on purpose by the author, when it is not done on purpose, it is vagueness, and detracts from the work. Purpose is rhythm or emphasis or euphony. It is a fancy word for inversion. Also called maxim, epigram. If the character is asking a god or goddess for inspiration it is called an invocation. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will in this crisis, shrink from the service of his country; but he that stands it Now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman.

Sentences can be unbalanced to serve a special effect as well. Romantic style literature relied more heavily on this form. They are one dimensional, like a piece of cardboard. They can be summed up in one phrase.

COMEDY in general, a story that ends with a happy resolution of the conflicts faced by the main character or characters. Often an extended metaphor. DIALECT a way of speaking that is characteristic of a certain social group or of the inhabitants of a certain geographical area. ELEGY a poem of mourning, usually about someone who has died. A Eulogy is great praise or commendation, a laudatory speech, often about someone who has died.

EPITHET an adjective or adjective phrase applied to a person or thing that is frequently used to emphasize a characteristic quality. A Homeric epithet is a compound adjective used with a person or thing: FOIL A character who acts as contrast to another character. Often a funny side kick to the dashing hero, or a villain contrasting the hero. Use of such syntactic subordination of just one clause to another is known as hypotaxis.

A single foot of this type is called an anapest. Instead of being courageous and determined, for instance, an antihero might be timid, hypersensitive, and indecisive to the point of paralysis. Antiheroes are especially common in modern literary works; examples might include the speaker of T. Thus when we make a claim about the author that relies solely on evidence from the work rather than from other sources, our subject is the implied author; for example, "In Dubliners , James Joyce heavily criticizes the Catholic church.

B ballad a verse narrative that is, or originally was, meant to be sung. Characterized by repetition and often by a refrain a recurrent phrase or series of phrases , ballads were originally a folk creation, transmitted orally from person to person and age to age. An example is "Sir Patrick Spens. This type of novel tends to envision character as the product of environment, experience, nurture, and education in the widest sense rather than of nature, fate, and so on.

If the person depicted in a biography is also its author, then we instead use the term autobiography. For examples of biographical criticism, see chapter 8. C caesura a short pause within a line of poetry; often but not always signaled by punctuation. Major or main characters are those that receive most attention, minor characters least. Flat characters are relatively simple, have a few dominant traits, and tend to be predictable.

Conversely, round characters are complex and multifaceted and act in a way that readers might not expect but accept as possible. Static characters do not change; dynamic characters do. Stock characters represent familiar types that recur frequently in literary works, especially of a particular genre e.

A term like "a good character" can, then, be ambiguous—it may mean that the personage is virtuous or that he or she is well presented regardless of his or her characteristics or moral qualities. In fiction, direct characterization occurs when a narrator explicitly tells us what a character is like. In classical Greek theater, members of the chorus often wore masks and relied on song, dance, and recitation to make their commentary.

Comedies take many different forms, but they share three basic characteristics: The term high or verbal comedy may refer either to a particular type of comedy or to a sort of humor found within any literary work that employs subtlety and wit and usually represents high society.

Conversely, low or physical comedy is a type of either comedy or humor that involves burlesque, horse play, and the representation of unrefined life. A conflict is external when it pits a character against something or someone outside himself or herself—another character or characters or something in nature or society. A conflict is internal when the opposing forces are two drives, impulses, or parts of a single character. See also denotation controlling metaphor see metaphor convention in literature, a standard or traditional way of presenting or expressing something, or a traditional or characteristic feature of a particular literary genre or subgenre.

Division into lines and stanzas is a convention of poetry. Conventions of the type of poem known as the epic include a plot that begins in medias res and frequent use of epithets and extended similes. A single foot of this type is called a dactyl. The term derives from the ancient Greek theatrical practice of using a mechanical device to lower a god or gods onto the stage to resolve the conflicts of the human characters.

Diction is often described as either informal or colloquial if it resembles everyday speech, or as formal if it is instead lofty, impersonal, and dignified. Tone is determined largely through diction. Drama typically lacks the narrators and narration found in fiction.

Closet drama , however, is a subgenre of drama that has most of these features yet is intended to be read, either silently by a single reader or out loud in a group setting. As its name suggests, verse drama is drama written in verse rather than prose. An example is W. See also enjambment English sonnet see sonnet enjambment in poetry, the technique of running over from one line to the next without stop, as in the following lines by William Wordsworth: Other epic conventions include a beginning in medias res, an invocation of the muse, a journey to the underworld, battle scenes, and a scene in which the hero arms himself for battle.

A mock epic is a form of satire in which epic language and conventions are used to depict characters, actions, and settings utterly unlike those in conventional epics, usually though not always with the purpose of ridiculing the social milieu or types of people portrayed in the poem.

The term, originally from Christian theology, was first popularized by the Irish fiction writer James Joyce, though Joyce also used the term to describe the individual short stories collected in his book Dubliners.

Additional exposition is often scattered throughout the work. F fable an ancient type of short fiction, in verse or prose, illustrating a moral or satirizing human beings. The characters in a fable are often animals that talk and act like human beings. The fable is sometimes treated as a specific type of folktale and sometimes as a fictional subgenre in its own right.

See also comedy fiction any narrative, especially in prose, about invented or imagined characters and action. Today, we tend to divide fiction into three major subgenres based on length—the short story, novella, and novel.

Older, originally oral forms of short fiction include the fable, legend, parable, and tale. Fictional works may also be categorized not by their length but by their handling of particular elements such as plot and character.

Metaphor, simile, metonymy, overstatement, oxymoron, and understatement are common figures of speech. See also voice foil a character that serves as a contrast to another.

A foot may contain more than one word or just one syllable of a multisyllabic word. In scansion, breaks between feet are usually indicated with a vertical line or slash mark, as in the following example which contains five feet: For specific examples of metrical feet , see anapestic , dactylic , iambic , spondee , and trochaic.

G-H general setting see setting genre a type or category of works sharing particular formal or textual features and conventions; especially used to refer to the largest categories for classifying literature—fiction, poetry, drama, and nonfiction. A smaller division within a genre is usually known as a subgenre , such as gothic fiction or epic poetry. Rarely talked about, but commonly used in modern day conversations, litotes are a discreet way of saying something unpleasant without directly using negativity.

Malapropism is used to convey that the speaker or character is flustered, bothered, unaware or confused and as a result cannot employ proper diction. A trick to using malapropism is to ensure that the two words the original and the substitute sound similar enough for the reader to catch onto the intended switch and find humour in the result.

A metaphor refers to a meaning or identity ascribed to one subject by way of another. In a metaphor, one subject is implied to be another so as to draw a comparison between their similarities and shared traits.

The first subject, which is the focus of the sentences is usually compared to the second subject, which is used to convey a degree of meaning that is used to characterize the first. The purpose of using a metaphor is to take an identity or concept that we understand clearly second subject and use it to better understand the lesser known element the first subject. Using a motif refers to the repetition of a specific theme dominating the literary work.

Motifs are very noticeable and play a significant role in defining the nature of the story, the course of events and the very fabric of the literary piece. The word also sometimes refers to the character or medium by which this justice is brought about as Nemesis was the patron goddess of vengeance according to classical mythology.

In other words, it refers to sound words whose pronunciation to the actual sound they represent. Words such as grunt, huff, buzz and snap are words whose pronunciation sounds very similar to the actual sounds these words represent. In literature such words are useful in creating a stronger mental image. An oxymoron is an interesting literary device because it helps to perceive a deeper level of truth and explore different layers of semantics while writing. The uniqueness of paradoxes lies in the fact that a deeper level of meaning and significance is not revealed at first glace, but when it does crystallize, it provides astonishing insight.

It is a type of personification, and is known to occur more by accident and less on purpose. The use of this literary device can be to embellish a sentence, to create a grander effect, to beat around the bush and to draw attention away from the crux of the message being conveyed.

It refers to the practice of attaching human traits and characteristics with inanimate objects, phenomena and animals. Opposed to the usual norm of using them sparsely, only where they are technically needed. The use of polysyndetons is primarily for adding dramatic effect as they have a strong rhetorical presence. This is often done in order to create a name or word for something by combining the individual characteristics of 2 or more other words. The use of satire is often inclusive of a need or decision of correcting or bettering the character that is on the receiving end of the satire.

It basically helps in establishing where and when and under what circumstances the story is taking place. By using similes a greater degree of meaning and understanding is attached to an otherwise simple sentence. The reader is able to better understand the sentiment the author wishes to convey. It basically refers to one unit or group of lines, which forms one particular faction in poetry.

It is somewhat rhetorical in nature, where the entire object is represented by way of a fraction of it or a fraction of the object is symbolized by the whole. Characters in literature are sometimes described to be experiences synesthesia. Synesthesia is the conflation of the senses. Usually in the English language the syntax should follow a pattern of subject-verb-object agreement but sometimes authors play around with this to achieve a lyrical, rhythmic, rhetoric or questioning effect.

It is not related to the act of choosing specific words or even the meaning of each word or the overall meanings conveyed by the sentences. The theme links all aspects of the literary work with one another and is basically the main subject. The theme can be an enduring pattern or motif throughout the literary work, occurring in a complex, long winding manner or it can be short and succinct and provide a certain insight into the story.

Tone can portray a variety of emotions ranging from solemn, grave, and critical to witty, wry and humorous.

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Soon we would learn that it was more to poetry than simply rhyming words. Poetry goes far beyond ABAB rhyme scheme. While reviewing this flashcard set, you will learn more about some of the literary terms associated with poetry.

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Study Flashcards On English 9 key literary terms and poetry at Quickly memorize the terms, phrases and much more. makes . Poetry Flashcards / Poetry Authors, Vocabulary, and Literary Terms used in the poems; Mar 04, in Poetry Flashcards. 0. Poetry Authors, Vocabulary, and Literary Terms used in the poems “I Wondered Lonely as a Cloud”.

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Form of poetry, that makes use of varying line lengths, abandoning stanzaic divisions, breaking lines in unexpected places, and even dispensing with any pretense of formal . Poetry written in unrhymed iambic pentameter. Poetry Type of rhythmic, compressed language that uses figures of speech and imagery .