From the Western perspective, the ethical conduct is more on individualistic behavior that is really cross culture with the Malaysians behavior. However, all the principle of Western and Malaysian is actually can influenced to the customer in Malaysia by having a different knowledge of studies and ethical conduct. Firstly, the most importance of having this research paper is to create awareness to Malaysian consumer towards developing of good morals and behavior. Depending on the research, we can see the need and the behavior by having the questionnaires given to them.
As we stated in the introduction, consumer ethics is study about their behavior, moral and beliefs, it is clearly shown why we having this research paper.
Secondly, the importance of this research paper is to give knowledge to consumer what is ethics all about and how to react to it. Even in Islamic teaching itself stressing about the use of ethics in daily life.
This is because; ethics can lead a consumer to behave in a right behavior. Thirdly, as we can see in the set of the questionnaires, we had asked about their personal details whether female or male, this is to find a differentiation of ethics between them.
Who is more ethical? Ethics is one of the fundamental in doing business transaction. According to Lewis et al. Ethics can guide our action and determine whether every decision we take is right or wrong. In business world, however, ethical conduct is not always clear especially when organization are operating in an international environment. Most tend to refute the idea that brand loyalty and risk aversion can be predicted solely on the basis of customer satisfaction.
Perhaps, to focus solely on customer satisfaction is to ignore social, economic, and cultural conditions that must undoubtedly influence customer behaviors such as brand loyalty and risk aversion.
Others point to the social conditions that underlie risk aversion and brand loyalty. Essentially, this resulted in consumers sharing a sense of greater personal identity and social distinction from using specific brands, thus lowering their perceived risk.
However, a cultural perspective on these particular aspects of consumer behavior may be most valuable because it contextualizes economic and social circumstances.
Though Hofstede is not directly concerned with brand loyalty, his concepts help frame a discussion of the subject because consumer behavior is, after all, a subcategory of human behavior, which Hofstede is interested in on a fundamental level. The first deals with social practices across cultures, the second is essentially another term for risk aversion, and the third implicates economic as well as social structures across cultures. Ultimately, a cross-cultural examination of consumer behavior reveals how economic and social circumstances cause and effect brand loyalty and risk aversion.
However, depending on size, locale, and distribution, businesses may or may not be interested in the cross-cultural indications of brand loyalty and risk aversion. Consumers take fewer risks in slumps, recessions, or depressions, than they might in times of steady or rapid economic growth Costas.
Unfortunately, this may worsen conditions overall because there is less consumption. In fact, risk aversion might help predict economic cycles, and not only be a reaction to said cycles. Therefore, risk aversion, and in turn consumer behavior, is fundamental in evaluating economies, and vice versa.
However, certain brands can benefit from tougher economic conditions if they are able to establish and maintain a loyal consumer base. The consumer may seek out brand loyalties in order to reduce risk; consistency can generate confidence and self-assuredness in a time of fluctuation or crisis Cox. Brand loyalty, unlike risk aversion, is not so easily framed within an economic interpretation of consumer behavior.
Inclusion of social implications allows for a better understanding of the relationship between brand loyalty and risk aversion. Numerous articles in academic and professional journals examine the social circumstances that create and maintain brand loyalty, and some measure the varying degree of risk aversion amongst the consumer.
Matzler et al posited that brand loyalty is a means of self-identity. From this perspective, original inclinations towards brand loyalty are dictated more by the consumer than by the brand. The article supports the argument by stating that brand loyalties are often maintained by the consumer even when the company undergoes a problematic disruption or an entirely new brand is introduced Matzler et al.
Consequently, the consumer may be so convinced of his or her social identification with the brand that they continue to trust and rely upon it even when these obstacles arise. We define market disruptions as major events occurring in the market that threaten customer-brand relationships.
These events are not at the individual level e. These events can influence the relative standing of the brand in the eyes of the customers Niels The authors do a good job noting that said events can occur at an individual level, but the crucial ones affect broad consumer demographics.
Granted, most of these disruptions are bound to alienate a number of customers. However, they may also strengthen loyalty amongst smaller communities. This point relates to the previously mentioned idea that customer satisfaction is not the sole motivator of brand loyalty. The authors make the very same claim, saying: If perceived value is conceptualized and operationalized as functional utilitarian value, as is prevalent in the literature, it does not capture other non-utilitarian factors such as sociopsychological benefits, that might motivate customers to continue buying what they buy.
Meanwhile, the branding literature reveals that brands can provide self-definitional benefits beyond utilitarian benefits Niels The main explanation for this was that such filters are not often applied to the analysis of brand loyalty because social identity is not easily measurable on paper; in contrast, the disruptions mentioned earlier provide ways for researchers to measure utilitarian responses to customer-brand relationships.
Social identity is an internal, individuated experience that is not easily gauged by statistics, and it relies more upon psychological approaches to consumerism in general. The men are placed in simple situations, and sometimes it takes nothing more than a brief exchange of conversation for the PC to emerge as the obvious loser, and the Mac as the superior, cooler, option.
The intention of this particular advertising campaign was to ask the view to identify with one of the characters. Whether male or female, old or young, the viewer should feel little sympathy for the disgruntled PC, and will likely want to identify with the hipper Mac.
Although marketers will attempt to shape brand loyalties across consumer demographics via advertisements, slogans, and product packaging, the inclination and practice of brand loyalty occurs primarily on the individual level; the consumer chooses while the businesses can only attract.
However, brand communities are often formed by the customer or the company in order to create and strengthen brand loyalty based on the devotion to the brand Batra et al. The article also suggested that these communities not only enabled positive brand loyalty, but they also generated negative oppositional loyalty. Clearly, such evangelism for a product or brand is invaluable to a company because it has the capacity to tangibly affect sales. Authorship by Maja Kalauz also supported this notion.
Consequently, establishing brand communities is extremely valuable for the business, and it is their initiative to ensure that it is valuable for the consumer as well. The pronounced influence of consumers who share strong associations with a given brand also works through deterring other brands from potentially entering that market.
An understanding of consumer behavior can lead to improved marketing strategies on the part of firms and organizations, and can also lead to improved public policy. In marketing, consumer behavior is the study of the acquisition, consumption, use, and disposal of products, services, experiences, or ideas, by consumers. When considered in greater depth, consumer behavior can be defined as the study of how and when individuals, groups and organizations select, purchase, use and dispose of products, services, experiences or ideas to satisfy their needs.
It also involves the study of why consumption decisions are made. In addition, consumer behavior looks at the impacts that the processes of selection, purchasing, use, and disposal have on consumers and on society. Consumer behavior studies the characteristics of individual consumers, by looking at variables such as demographics, psychographics and behavior, in an attempt to understand the consumer and his or her world.
Demographics include factors such as race, age, income, mobility travel time to work or number of vehicles available , educational attainment, home ownership, employment status and location. Psychographics are attributes related to personality, values, attitudes, interests, or lifestyles. Behavioral variables include usage rate and loyalty. Consumer behavior also tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, reference groups and society in general Perner, Consumer behavior is a subcategory of marketing that blends elements from economics, psychology, sociology, social psychology, anthropology and other sciences, such as physiological psychology, biochemistry, and genetics.
Psychology — the study of individual behavior — was one of the earliest and most extensively used fields from which concepts have been borrowed. It has been said that the basic nature of consumer behavior is diversity: Although early related research can be traced back much further, the attempt to theorize consumer behavior began in , first looking at the type of behavioral processes consumers typically used in adopting new products; then addressing consumer problem-solving, buyer behavior, and buyer decision processes.
Subsequent research has looked into information processing of consumer choice, and the experiential consumer.
The study of consumer behavior involves elements of economics, the social sciences, and the physical sciences. An endless and diverse field of research and applications, consumer behavior.
Part 1: Executive Summary This research paper explains the decision making process, the internal and external factors that have influences a "high involvement".
This sample research paper written on consumer behavior will help improve your understanding of branding and risk aversion in marketing.5/5(1). Free consumer behavior papers, essays, and research papers.
Essays - largest database of quality sample essays and research papers on Research Papers On Consumer Behavior. Future studies of the consumer behavior research literature can also investigate authorship of the articles, including which authors have had what impact on the discipline and which scholars from which institutions have been productive in terms of consumer behavior publications.